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Federated States of Micronesia

Federated States of Micronesia
/ /
Flag - Coat of arms
Motto: Peace Unity Liberty
Anthem: Patriots of Micronesia
/
Capital - Palikir
6°55′N 158°11′E  /  6.917°N 158.183°E  / 6.917; 158.183
Largest city - Kolonia
Official language(s) - English (national; local languages are used at state and municipal levels
Demonym - Micronesian
Government - DemocraticFederatedPresidentialRepublic
President - Manny Mori
Vice President - Alik L. Alik
Independence - from US-administered UN Trusteeship
Date - 3 November 1986
Area
Total - 702 km (188th)
271 sq mi
Water (%) - negligible
Population
2009 estimate - 111,000 - (181st
2000 census - 107,000
Density - 158.1/km (66th)
409.6/sq mi
GDP (PPP) - 2002 estimate
Total - $277 million (215th
Per capita - $2,000 (180th
HDI (2003) - n/a (unranked ) (n/a
Currency - United States dollar (USD
Time zone - (UTC+10 and +11
Summer (DST) - not observed (UTC+10 and +11
Drives on the - right
Internet TLD - .fm
Calling code - 691
- GDP is supplemented by grant aid, averaging around $100 million annually (2002 estimate).
- 2002 estimate.
The Federated States of Micronesia en-us-Micronesia.ogg/ˌmaɪkroʊˈniːʒə/
1 - History
2 - Politics
3 - Administrative divisions
4 - Geography
5 - Economy
6 - Transportation
7 - Demographics
8 - Culture
  • 8.1 - Languages
  • 8.2 - Literature
    8.3 - Religion
    9 - Defense and foreign affairs
    10 - See also
    11 - Notes
    12 - References
    13 - Bibliography
    14 -
    History
    History of the Federated States of Micronesia
    The ancestors of the Micronesians settled over four thousand years ago. A decentralized chieftain-based system eventually evolved into a more centralized economic and religious empire centered on Yap.

    Nan Madol, consisting of a series of small artificial islands linked by a network of canals, is often called the Venice of the Pacific. It is located near the island of Pohnpei and used to be the ceremonial and political seat of the Saudeleur dynasty that united Pohnpei's estimated 25,000 people from about AD 500 until 1500, when the centralized system collapsed.

    European explorers—first the Portuguese in search of the Spice Islands (Indonesia) and then the Spanish—reached the Carolines in the sixteenth century, with the Spanish establishing sovereignty. It was sold to Germany in 1899, conquered by Japan in 1914, before being seized by the United States during World War II and administered by the US under United Nations auspices in 1947 as part of the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands.

    During World War II, a significant portion of the Japanese fleet was based in Truk Lagoon. In February 1944, Operation Hailstone, one of the most important naval battles of the war, took place at Truk, in which many Japanese support vessels and aircraft were destroyed.

    On May 10, 1979, four of the Trust Territory districts ratified a new constitution to become the Federated States of Micronesia. Palau, the Marshall Islands, and the Northern Mariana Islands chose not to participate. The FSM signed a Compact of Free Association with the United States of America, which entered into force on November 3, 1986, marking Micronesia's emergence from trusteeship to independence. The Compact was renewed in 2004.

    Politics
    Politics of the Federated States of Micronesia
    The Federated States of Micronesia is governed by the 1979 constitution, which guarantees fundamental human rights and establishes a separation of governmental powers. The unicameral Congress has fourteen members elected by popular vote. Four senators—one from each state—serve four-year terms; the remaining ten senators represent single-member districts based on population, and serve two-year terms. The President and Vice President are elected by Congress from among the four state-based senators to serve four-year terms in the executive branch. Their congressional seats are then filled by special elections.

    The president and vice president are supported by an appointed cabinet. There are no formal political parties.

    In international politics, the Federated States of Micronesia has often voted with the United States with respect to United Nations General Assembly resolutions.

    Administrative divisions
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    /
    Map of the Federated States of Micronesia
    Administrative divisions of the Federated States of Micronesia
    The four states in the federation are:

    Flag - State - Capital - Land
    area
    km² - Population - Population
    density
    per km²
    Chuuk - Chuuk - Weno 127 54,595 420
    Kosrae - Kosrae - Tofol 110 9,686 70
    Pohnpei - Pohnpei - Kolonia 346 34,685 100
    Yap - Yap - Colonia 118 16,436 95
    These states are further divided into municipalities.
    Geography
    Geography of the Federated States of Micronesia
    /
    /
    Kolonia Town looking down from Sokehs Ridge in Pohnpei.
    The Federated States of Micronesia consists of 607 islands extending 1,800 miles (2,900 km) across the archipelago of the Caroline Islands east of the Philippines. The four constituent island groups are Yap, Chuuk (called Truk until January 1990), Pohnpei (known as "Ponape" until November 1984), and Kosrae (formerly Kusaie). These four states are each represented by a white star on the national flag. The capital is Palikir, on Pohnpei.

    The country has seven official languages: English, Ulithian, Woleaian, Yapese, Pohnpeian, Kosraean, and Chuukese.

    The other languages spoken in the country are Pingelapese, Ngatikese, Satawalese, Kapingamarangi Language, Nukuoro Language, Puluwatese, Mortlockese, and Mokilese.

    Economy
    Economy of the Federated States of Micronesia
    Economic activity in the Federated States of Micronesia consists primarily of subsistence farming and fishing. The islands have few mineral deposits worth exploiting, except for high-grade phosphate. Long line tuna fishing is also viable with foreign vessels from China operated in the 1990s. The potential for a tourist industry exists, but the remoteness of the location and a lack of adequate facilities hinder development. Financial assistance from the US is the primary source of revenue, with the US pledged to spend $1.3 billion in the islands in 1986–2001. Geographical isolation and a poorly developed infrastructure are major impediments to long-term growth.

    The nation uses the US dollar as their currency.

    Transportation
    The Federated States of Micronesia is served by four international airports.
    Pohnpei International Airport in the main island of the state of Pohnpei
    Chuuk International Airport located in the main island of the state of Chuuk
    Kosrae International Airport located in the main island of the state of Kosrae
    Yap International Airport located in the main island of the state of Yap
    Demographics
    Demographics of the Federated States of Micronesia
    The indigenous population of the Federated States of Micronesia, which is predominantly Micronesian, consists of various ethnolinguistic groups. It has a nearly 100% Pacific Islander and Asian population. Chuukese 48.8%, Pohnpeian 24.2%, Kosraean 6.2%, Yapese 5.2%, Yap outer islands 4.5%, Asian 1.8%, Polynesian 1.5%, other 6.4%, unknown 1.4%. A sizeable minority also have some Japanese ancestry, which is a result of intermarriages between Japanese settlers and Micronesians during the Japanese colonial period. 5 -

    There is also growing expatriate population of Americans, Australians, Europeans, and residents from China and the Philippines since the 1990s. English has become the common language of the government, and for secondary and tertiary education. Outside of the main capital towns of the four FSM states, the local languages are primarily spoken. Population growth remains high at more than 3% annually, offset somewhat by net emigration. Pohnpei is notable for the prevalence of the extreme form of color blindness known as maskun.

    Culture
    /
    /
    A large (approximately 8 feet (2.4 m) in height) example of Yapese stone money (Rai stones) in the village of Gachpar.
    Music of the Federated States of Micronesia
    Each of the four States has its own culture and traditions, but there are also common cultural and economic bonds that are centuries old. For example, cultural similarities like the importance of the traditional extended family and clan systems can be found on all the islands.

    The island of Yap is notable for its "stone money" (Rai stones), large disks usually of calcite, up to 12 feet (4 m) in diameter, with a hole in the middle. The islanders, aware of the owner of a piece, do not necessarily move them when ownership changes. There are five major types: Mmbul , Gaw , Ray , Yar , and Reng , the last being only 1 foot (30 cm) in diameter. Their value is based on both size and history, many of them having been brought from other islands, as far as New Guinea, but most coming in ancient times from Palau. Approximately 6,500 of them are scattered around the island.

    Languages
    The languages of the Federated States of Micronesia include English (the official and common language), Trukese, Pohnpeian, Yapese, Kosraean. 6 - There are also about 3,000 speakers of Kapingamarangi and Ulithian, and under 1,000 speakers of Nukuoro.
    Literature
    There have been few published literary writers from the Federated States of Micronesia. 7 - In 2008, Emelihter Kihleng became the first ever Micronesian to publish a collection of poetry in the English language 8 - .
    Religion
    Religion in the Federated States of Micronesia
    Defense and foreign affairs
    Compact of Free Association
    The FSM is a sovereign, self-governing state in free association with the United States, which is wholly responsible for its defense. The Division of Maritime Surveillance operates a paramilitary Maritime Wing and a small Maritime Police Unit. The Compact of Free Association allows FSM citizens to join the U.S. military without having to obtain U.S. permanent residency or citizenship, 9 - allows for immigration and employment for Micronesians in the U.S., and establishes economic and technical aid programs.
    See also
    Map OC-Micronesia.PNG Micronesia portal
    Outline of the Federated States of Micronesia
    Index of Federated States of Micronesia-related articles
    Notes
  • Department of Economic and Social Affairs Population Division (2009) (.PDF). World Population Prospects, Table A.1 . 2008 revision. United Nations . un.org/esa/population/publications/wpp2008/wpp2008_text_tables.pdf
  • General Assembly - Overall Votes - Comparison with U.S. vote lists Micronesia as in the country with the fourth high coincidence of votes. Micronesia has always been in the top four.
    FSM government website - Geography
    FSM government website - Population
    President Emanuel Mori Meets With Japan Prime Minister Yasuo Fukuda; AESonline.org Government of the Federated States of Micronesia, December 12, 2007
    CIA World Factbook
    "Seeking Micronesian literary writers", Marianas Variety , February 18, 2009
    "Micronesian Poet Publishes Collection of Poems", Office of Insular Affairs, May 12, 2008
    U.S. Military Enlistment Standards
    References
    US-CIA. CIA - The World Factbook: Federated States of Micronesia. The World Factbook . United States of America: Central Intelligence Agency. 2003.
    History_Federated_States_of_Micronesia
    Meet The Parents 1
    Bibliography
    Brower, Kenneth; Harri Peccinotti (1981). Micronesia: The Land, the People, and the Sea . Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press. ISBN0807109924.
    Darrach, Brad; David Doubilet (1995). "Treasured Islands". Life (August 1995): 46–53.
    Falgout, Suzanne (1995). "Americans in Paradise: Anthropologists, Custom, and Democracy in Postwar Micronesia". Ethnology (Ethnology, Vol. 34, No. 2) 34 (Spring 1995): 99–111. doi:10.2307/3774100 . jstor.org/stable/3774100 .
    Friedman, Hal M. (1993). "The Beast in Paradise: The United States Navy in Micronesia, 1943–1947". Pacific Historical Review 62 (May 1993): 173–195.
    Friedman, Hal M. (1994). "Arguing over Empire". Journal of Pacific History 29 (1994): 36–48. doi:10.1080/00223349408572757.
    Hanlon, David (1998). Remaking Micronesia: Discourses over Development in a Pacific Territory, 1944–1982 . Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press. ISBN0824818946.
    Hezel, Francis X. (1995). "The Church in Micronesia". America 18 (February 1995): 23–24.
    Kluge, P. F. (1991). The Edge of Paradise: America in Micronesia . New York: Random House. ISBN0394581784.
    Malcomson, S. L. (1989). "Stranger than Paradise". Mother Jones 14 (January 1989): 19–25.
    "Micronesia: A New Nation". U.S. News & World Report (October 15, 1984): 80–81.
    Parfit, Michael (2003). "Islands of the Pacific". National Geographic 203 (March 2003): 106–125.
    Patterson, Carolyn Bennett (1986). "In the Far Pacific: At the Birth of Nations". National Geographic 170 (October 1986): 460–500.
    Peoples, James G. (1993). "Political Evolution in Micronesia". Ethnology (Ethnology, Vol. 32, No. 1) 32 (Winter 1993): 1–17. doi:10.2307/3773542 . jstor.org/stable/3773542 .
    Rainbird, Paul (2003). "Taking the Tapu: Defining Micronesia by Absence". Journal of Pacific History 38 (September 2003): 237–250. doi:10.1080/0022334032000120558.
    Schwalbenberg, Henry M.; Thomas Hatcher (1994). "Micronesian Trade and Foreign Assistance". Journal of Pacific History 29 (1): 95–104. doi:10.1080/00223349408572762.
    Find more about Federated States of Micronesia on Wikipedia's sister projects:
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    Government
    Government of the Federated States of Micronesia
    Chief of State and Cabinet Members
    General information
    Federated States of Micronesia entry at The World Factbook
    Federated States of Micronesia from UCB Libraries GovPubs
    Federated States of Micronesia at the Open Directory Project
    Jane's Federated States of Micronesia Home Page
    Trust Territory of the Pacific Archives at the University of Hawaii
    Pacific Islands Legal Information Institute - Federated States of Micronesia
    Nature.org - Micronesia environmental conservation
    myMicronesia.com Online resource center about the islands of Micronesia. Provides free listings and links to all Micronesian businesses, as well as civic, cultural, health and educational organizations.
    Habele.org - Outer Islands Information about the remote islands and atolls outside the four state capitals of Micronesia from an educational nonprofit.
    News media
    The Yap Networker – Yap's news source
    Maps
    Wikimedia Atlas of the Federated States of Micronesia
    Map of Micronesia
    Nan Madol islet complex Provides computer based reconstruction of the main islets and features
    Travel
    Federated States of Micronesia travel guide from Wikitravel
    Moon Handbooks Micronesia
    Travel Overview of Micronesia
    Articles Related to the Federated States of Micronesia
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