Tonga

Tonga

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Tonga

Kingdom of Tonga Puleʻ anga Fakatuʻ i ʻ o Tonga (Tongan
/ /
Flag - Coat of arms
Motto:Ko e ʻ Otua mo Tonga ko hoku tofiʻ a
God and Tonga are my Inheritance
Anthem:Ko e fasi ʻ o e tuʻ i ʻ o e ʻ Otu Tonga
/
Capital
(and largest city) - Nukuʻ alofa
21°08′S 175°12′W  /  21.133°S 175.2°W  / -21.133;-175.2
Official language(s) - Tongan, English
Demonym - Tongan
Government - Constitutional monarchy
King - George Tupou V
Prime Minister - Dr. Feleti Sevele
Independence
from Britishprotectorate - June 4, 1970
Area
Total - 748 km (186th)
289 sq mi
Water (%) - 4.0
Population
2009 estimate - 104,000 - (195th
Density - 139/km (76th)
360/sq mi
GDP (PPP) - 2008 estimate
Total - $728 million 2 -
Per capita - $7,060 2 -
GDP (nominal) - 2009 estimate
Total - $313 million 2 -
Per capita - $3,032 2 -
HDI (2009) - 0.768 - ( medium ) (99th
Currency - Paʻ anga (TOP
Time zone - (UTC+13
Summer (DST) - (UTC+13
Drives on the - left
Internet TLD - .to
Calling code - 676
- Based on 2005 figures.
Tonga (pronounced ˈtoŋa ) - officially the Kingdom of Tonga (Tongan:Puleʻanga Fakatuʻi ʻo Tonga ) - an archipelago in the South Pacific Ocean, comprises 169 islands, 36 of them inhabited. - The Kingdom stretches over a distance of about 800 kilometres (500 miles) in a north-south line. The islands that constitute the archipelago lie south of Samoa, about one-third of the way from New Zealand to Hawaiʻ i.

Tonga also became known as the Friendly Islands because of the friendly reception accorded to Captain James Cook on his first visit there in 1773. He happened to arrive at the time of the ʻ inasi festival, the yearly donation of the first fruits to the Tuʻ i Tonga, the islands' paramount chief, and received an invitation to the festivities. According to the writer William Mariner, in reality the chiefs had wanted to kill Cook during the gathering, but could not agree on a plan. 5 -

The only sovereign monarchy among the island nations of the Pacific Ocean, Tonga - uniquely among island nations in the South Pacific region - avoided formal colonisation. 6 - Tonga plans to become a fully functioning constitutional monarchy after legislative reform and a more fully representative election take place in 2010.

1 - Etymology
2 - History
3 - Geography
4 - Climate
5 - Politics
6 - Economy
  • 6.1 - Energy
  • 7 - Demographics
    8 - Religion
    9 - Culture and diaspora
    10 - Sport
    11 - Media
    12 - See also
    13 - References
    14 - Further reading
    15 -
    Etymology
    In many Polynesian languages the word tonga means "south". The name of Tonga derives from the word Tongahahake , ] which translates to "Southeast", originally meaning "the wind that blows from the Southeast". The proper pronunciation of the name 'Tonga' is /toŋa/ , 7 - and not /tɒŋɡə/ , a pronunciation used for an Indian carriage spelled in the same way and so causing confusion.
    History
    History of Tonga
    An Austronesian-speaking group linked to the archeological construct known as the Lapita cultural complex reached and colonised Tonga around 1500–1000 BCE. 8 - Scholars continue to debate the exact dates of the initial settlement of Tonga. Not much is known about Tonga before European contact because of the lack of a writing system during prehistoric times. However, oral history has survived and been recorded after the arrival of the Europeans. The Tongan people first encountered Europeans in 1616 when the Dutch vessel Eendracht made a short visit to the islands to trade.

    By the 12th century Tongans, and the Tongan paramount chief, the Tuʻi Tonga, had a reputation across the central Pacific – from Niue, Samoa, Eastern Fiji, Rotuma, Wallis &Futuna, New Caledonia to Tikopia – leading some historians to speak of a 'Tongan Empire'. In the 15th century and again in the 17th, civil war erupted. Into this situation the first European explorers arrived, beginning in 1616 with the Dutch explorers Willem Schouten and Jacob Le Maire (who called on the northern island of Niuatoputapu), and in 1643 with Abel Tasman(who visited Tongatapu and Haʻ apai). Later noteworthy European visitors included James Cook (British Navy) in 1773, 1774, and 1777, Alessandro Malaspina (Spanish Navy) in 1793, the first London missionaries in 1797, and the Wesleyan Methodist Rev. Walter Lawry in 1822.

    / /
    Tāufaʻ āhau, King of Tonga (1845-1893).
    In 1845 the ambitious young warrior, strategist, and orator Tāufaʻ āhau united Tonga into a kingdom. He held the chiefly title of Tuʻ i Kanokupolu, but had been baptised with the name Jiaoji ("George") in 1831. In 1875, with the help of missionary Shirley Waldemar Baker, he declared Tonga a constitutional monarchy, formally adopted the western royal style, emancipated the "serfs", enshrined a code of law, land tenure, and freedom of the press, and limited the power of the chiefs.

    Tonga became a British-protected state under a Treaty of Friendship on 18 May 1900, when European settlers and rival Tongan chiefs tried to oust the second king. Within the British Empire, which posted no higher permanent representative on Tonga than a British Consul (1901–1970), Tonga formed part of the British Western Pacific Territories (under a colonial High Commissioner, residing on Fiji) from 1901 until 1952. Although under the protection of Britain, Tonga remained the only Pacific nation never to have given up its monarchical government - as did Tahiti and Hawaiʻ i. The Tongan monarchy, unlike that of the UK, follows a straight line clarification needed ] of rulers.

    The Treaty of Friendship and Tonga's protectorate status ended in 1970 under arrangements established by Queen Salote Tupou III prior to her death in 1965. Tonga joined the Commonwealth of Nations in 1970 (atypically as an autochthonous monarchy, that is one with its own local monarch rather than Elizabeth II - compare Malaysia, Lesotho, Swaziland and New Zealand)), and the United Nations in September 1999. While exposed to colonial pressures, Tonga has never lost indigenous governance, a fact that makes Tonga unique in the Pacific and gives Tongans much pride, as well as confidence in their monarchical system. As part of cost cutting measures across the British Foreign Service, the British Government closed the British High Commission in Nukuʻ alofa in March 2006, transferring representation of British interests in Tonga to the UK High Commissioner in Fiji. The last resident British High Commissioner was Paul Nessling. 9 -

    Geography
    Geography of Tonga
    Administratively Tonga sub-divides into five divisions:'Eua, Ha'apai, Niuas, Tongatapu, and Vava'u. 10 - 11 -
    Climate
    Tonga has a tropical climate with only two seasons, summer and winter. Most rain falls around February and April. The Cyclone season lasts from November to March.

    Climate data for Nuku'alofa,Tonga
    Month - Jan - Feb - Mar - Apr - May - Jun - Jul - Aug - Sep - Oct - Nov - Dec - Year
    Record high °C (°F) - 32
    (90)
    32
    (90)
    31
    (88)
    30
    (86)
    30
    (86)
    28
    (82)
    28
    (82)
    28
    (82)
    28
    (82)
    29
    (84)
    30
    (86)
    31
    (88)
    32
    (90
    Average high °C (°F) - 28
    (82)
    29
    (84)
    28
    (82)
    27
    (81)
    26
    (79)
    25
    (77)
    25
    (77)
    24
    (75)
    25
    (77)
    25
    (77)
    27
    (81)
    27
    (81)
    26
    (79
    Daily mean °C (°F) - 25
    (77)
    25
    (77)
    25
    (77)
    24
    (75)
    23
    (73)
    21
    (70)
    21
    (70)
    21
    (70)
    21
    (70)
    22
    (72)
    23
    (73)
    23
    (73)
    23
    (73
    Average low °C (°F) - 22
    (72)
    22
    (72)
    22
    (72)
    21
    (70)
    20
    (68)
    18
    (64)
    17
    (63)
    18
    (64)
    17
    (63)
    19
    (66)
    20
    (68)
    20
    (68)
    20
    (68
    Record low °C (°F) - 16
    (61)
    17
    (63)
    15
    (59)
    15
    (59)
    13
    (55)
    11
    (52)
    10
    (50)
    11
    (52)
    11
    (52)
    12
    (54)
    13
    (55)
    16
    (61)
    10
    (50
    Precipitation cm (inches) - 13
    (5.1)
    19
    (7.5)
    21
    (8.3)
    12
    (4.7)
    13
    (5.1)
    10
    (3.9)
    10
    (3.9)
    13
    (5.1)
    11
    (4.3)
    9
    (3.5)
    10
    (3.9)
    12
    (4.7)
    161
    (63.4
    Source:Weatherbase 12 - 2010-03-15
    Politics
    Politics of Tonga
    Tonga operates as a constitutional monarchy. Reverence for the monarch replaces that held in earlier centuries for the sacred paramount chief, the Tuʻ i Tonga. Criticism of the monarch is held to be contrary to Tongan culture and etiquette. A direct descendant of the first monarch, King George Tupou V, his family, some powerful nobles, and a growing non-royal elite caste live in much wealth, with the rest of the country living in relative poverty. The effects of this disparity are mitigated by three factors:education, medicine, and land tenure.

    Tonga provides for its citizens:

    free and mandatory education for all
    secondary education with only nominal fees
    and foreign-funded scholarships for post-secondary education
    Tongans enjoy a relatively high level of education, with a 98.9% literacy rate, 13 - and higher education up to and including medical and graduate degrees (pursued mostly overseas).

    Tongans also have universal access to a national health care system. The Tongan constitution protects land ownership:land cannot be sold to foreigners (although it may be leased). While there is a land shortage on the urbanized main island of Tongatapu (where 70% of the population resides), there is farm land available in the outlying islands. The majority of the population engages in some form of subsistence production of food, with approximately half producing almost all of their basic food needs through farming, sea harvesting, and animal husbandry. Women and men have equal access to education and health care, and are fairly equal in employment, but women are discriminated against in land holding, electoral politics, and government ministries. However, in Tongan tradition women enjoy a higher social status than men ], a cultural trait that is unique among the insular societies of the Pacific.

    / /
    Prime Minister Feleti Sevele.
    The pro-democracy movement in Tonga promotes reforms, including better representation in the Parliament for the majority commoners, and better accountability in matters of state. An overthrow of the monarchy itself is not part of the movement and the institution of monarchy continues to hold popular support, even while reforms are advocated. Until recently, the governance issue was generally ignored by the leaders of other countries, but major aid donors and neighbours New Zealand and Australia are now expressing concerns about some Tongan government actions.

    Following the precedents of Queen Sālote and the counsel of numerous international advisors who? ], the government of Tonga under King Tāufaʻ āhau Tupou IV (reigned 1965-2006) monetized the economy, internationalized the medical and education system, and enabled access by commoners to increasing forms of material wealth (houses, cars, and other commodities), education, and overseas travel. The government has supported Olympic and other international sports competition, and contributed Peacekeepers to the United Nations (notably to Bougainville and the Solomon Islands).

    The Tongan government also supported the American "coalition of the willing" action in Iraq, and a small number of Tongan soldiers were deployed, as part of an American force, to Iraq in late 2004. However, the contingent of 40+ troops returned home on 17 December 2004. 14 - In 2007, a second contingent was sent to Iraq while two more were sent during 2008 to be part of Tonga's continuous support for the coalition. This Tongan involvement was finally concluded at the end of 2008 with no loss of Tongan life reported.

    The previous king, Tāufaʻ āhau Tupou IV and his government made some problematic economic decisions and are accused by whom? ] of wasting millions of dollars in poor investments. 15 - The problems have mostly been driven by attempts to increase national revenue through a variety of schemes, considering making Tonga a nuclear waste disposal site (an idea floated in the mid-90s by the current crown prince); 16 - selling Tongan Protected Persons Passports (which eventually forced Tonga to naturalize the purchasers, sparking ethnicity-based concerns within Tonga); 17 - registering foreign ships (which proved to be engaged in illegal activities, including shipments for al-Qaeda); 18 - claiming geo-orbital satellite slots (the revenue from which seems to belong to the Princess Royal, not the state); 19 - holding a long-term charter on an unusable Boeing 757 that was sidelined in Auckland Airport, leading to the collapse of Royal Tongan Airlines; 20 - building an airport hotel and potential casino with an Interpol-accused criminal; ] and approving a factory for exporting cigarettes to China (against the advice of Tongan medical officials, and decades of health promotion messaging). 21 -

    The king has proved vulnerable to speculators with big promises and lost several million (reportedly 26 million USD) to Jesse Bogdonoff, a financial adviser who called himself the king's Court Jester. 15 - The police have imprisoned pro-democracy leaders, and the government repeatedly confiscated the newspaper The Tongan Times (which was printed in New Zealand and sold in Tonga) because the editor had been vocally critical of the king's mistakes. 22 - Notably, the Keleʻ a , produced specifically to critique the government and printed in Tonga by pro-democracy leader ʻ Akilisi Pōhiva, was not banned during that time. Pōhiva, however, had been subjected to harassment in the form of frequent lawsuits. 23 -

    / /
    The Royal palace of Tonga.
    In mid-2003 the government passed a radical constitutional amendment to "Tonganize" the press, by licensing and limiting freedom of the press, so as to protect the image of the monarchy. The amendment was defended by the government and by royalists on the basis of traditional cultural values. Licensure criteria include 80% ownership by Tongans living in the country. As of February 2004, those papers denied licenses under the new act included the Taimi ʻ o Tonga ( Tongan Times ), the Keleʻ a and the Matangi Tonga , while those which were permitted licenses were uniformly church-based or pro-government.

    The bill was opposed in the form of a several-thousand-strong protest march in the capital, a call by the Tuʻ i Pelehake (a prince, nephew of the king and elected member of parliament) for Australia and other nations to pressure the Tongan government to democratize the electoral system, and a legal writ calling for a judicial investigation of the bill. The latter was supported by some 160 signatures, including seven of the nine elected "People's Representatives".

    The strong-arm tactics and gaffes have overshadowed the good that the aged king had done in his lifetime, as well as the many beneficial reforms of his son, ʻ Ahoʻ eitu ʻ Unuakiʻ otonga Tukuʻ aho (Lavaka Ata ʻ Ulukālala), who was Prime Minister from January 3, 2000 to February 11, 2006. neutrality is disputed ] The former Crown Prince and current monarch, Tupoutoʻ a, and Pilolevu, the Princess Royal, remained generally silent on the issue. In total, the changes threatened to destabilize the polity, fragment support for the status quo, and place further pressure on the monarchy.

    In 2005 the government spent several weeks negotiating with striking civil-service workers before reaching a settlement. The civil unrest that ensued was not limited to just Tonga;protests outside the king's New Zealand residence made headlines, too. A constitutional commission is currently (2005–06) studying proposals to update the constitution. 24 -

    Prime Minister Prince ʻ Ahoʻ eitu ʻ Unuakiʻ otonga Tukuʻ aho (Lavaka Ata ʻ Ulukālala) resigned suddenly on February 11, 2006, and also gave up his other cabinet portfolios. The elected Minister of Labour, Dr Feleti Sevele, replaced him in the interim.

    On July 5, 2006 a driver in Menlo Park, California caused the deaths of Prince Tu'ipelehake ʻ Uluvalu, his wife, and their driver. Tu'ipelehake, 55, was the co-chairman of the constitutional reform commission, and a nephew of the King.

    The Tongan public expected some changes when Siaosi Tupou V (later King George Tupou V) succeeded his father in 2006. On November 16, 2006, rioting broke out in the capital city of Nuku'alofa when it seemed that the parliament would adjourn for the year without having made any advances in increasing democracy in government. Pro-democracy activists burned and looted shops, offices, and government buildings. As a result, more than 60% of the downtown area was destroyed, and as many as 6 people died. 25 -

    On July 29, 2008 the Palace announced that King George Tupou V would relinquish much of his power and would surrender his role in day-to-day governmental affairs to the Prime Minister. The royal chamberlain said that this was being done to prepare the monarchy for 2010, when most of the first parliament will be elected, and added:"The Sovereign of the only Polynesian kingdom. is voluntarily surrendering his powers to meet the democratic aspirations of many of his people." The previous week, the government said the king had completed the sale of his ownership of state assets which had contributed to much of the royal family's wealth. 26 -

    Economy
    Economy of Tonga
    / /
    A Tongan one cent (seniti taha) coin.
    Tonga's economy is characterized by a large non monetary sector and a heavy dependence on remittances from the half of the country's population that lives abroad, chiefly in Australia, New Zealand, and the United States. The monetary sector of the economy is dominated and largely owned by the royal family and nobles. This is particularly true of the telecommunications and satellite services. Much of small business, particularly retail establishments on Tongatapu, is now dominated by recent Chinese immigrants who arrived under a cash-for-passports scheme that ended in 1998.

    The manufacturing sector consists of handicrafts and a few other very small scale industries, all of which contribute only about 3% of GDP. Commercial business activities also are inconspicuous and, to a large extent, are dominated by the same large trading companies found throughout the South Pacific. In September 1974, the country's first commercial trading bank, the Bank of Tonga, opened. There are no patent laws in Tonga. 27 -

    Rural Tongans rely on plantation and subsistence agriculture. Coconuts, vanilla beans, bananas, coffee beans and root crops such as yams, taro and cassava, are the major cash crops. The processing of coconuts into copra and desiccated (dried) coconut was once the only significant industry but deteriorating prices on the world market has brought this once vibrant industry, as everywhere throughout the island nations of the south Pacific, to a complete standstill. In addition, the feudal land ownership system meant that farmers had no incentive to invest in planting long-term tree crops on land they did not own. Pigs and poultry are the major types of livestock. Horses are kept for draft purposes, primarily by farmers working their 'api 'uta (a plot of bushland). More cattle are being raised, and beef imports are declining. The export of squash to Japan once brought relief to a struggling economy but recently local farmers are increasingly wary of this market due to price fluctuations, not to mention the huge financial risks involved.

    Tonga's development plans emphasize a growing private sector, upgrading agricultural productivity, revitalizing the squash and vanilla bean industries, developing tourism, and improving the island's communications and transportation systems. Substantial progress has been made, but much work remains to be done. A small but growing construction sector is developing in response to the inflow of aid monies and remittances from Tongans abroad. It remains to be said that the most significant contributor to Tonga's economy are remittances from Tongans living abroad. In recognition of such a crucial contribution, the present Tongan government has created a new department within the Prime Minister's Office with the sole purpose of catering for the needs of Tongans living abroad. Furthermore, the Tongan Parliament in 2007 amended citizenship laws to allow Tongans especially those living overseas to hold dual citizenship.

    Efforts are being made by whom? ] to discover ways to diversify. One hope is seen in fisheries;tests have shown that sufficient skipjack tuna pass through Tongan waters to support a fishing industry. Another potential development activity is exploitation of forests, which cover 35% of the kingdom's land area but are decreasing as land is cleared. Coconut trees past their prime bearing years also provide a potential source of timber.

    The tourist industry is relatively undeveloped;however, the government recognizes that tourism can play a major role in economic development, and efforts are being made to increase this source of revenue. Cruise ships often stop in Nukuʻ alofa and Vavaʻ u.

    Vava'u has a reputation for its whale watching, game fishing, surfing, beaches and is increasingly becoming a major player in the South Pacific tourism market.

    Tonga's postage stamps, which feature colorful and often unusual designs (including heart-shaped and banana-shaped stamps) are popular with philatelists around the world. 28 -

    Real estate companies have also just started to spring up in Tonga;as such, they were basically unheard of less than a decade ago. These have provided a way of making income for many Tongans as nearly every male Tongan has plots of land that he has never seen and the leasing of this valuable and attractive land allows the Tongan to live in a comfort not experienced before. There are also many Tongans who work as commission agents and earn a living by finding available land parcels and bringing them to local ex-pats or computer savvy Tongans to list on-line. Some of these so-called real estate companies have done more harm than good and one would be wise to be careful when dealing with them. However for the most part acquiring real estate in Tonga is a simple, straightforward and problem-free process.

    In 2005 the country became eligible to become a member of the World Trade Organization, however on July 25, 2006 it was announced that Tonga has deferred its membership of the WTO until July next year according to the Tongan Prime Minister, Dr. Feleti Sevele. The delay he said did not mean that Tonga was withdrawing its WTO membership application, but to give Tonga more time to improve its tariff system.

    The Tonga Chamber of Commerce and Industry (TCCI), incorporated in 1996, endeavours to represent the interests of its members, private sector businesses, and to promote economic growth in the Kingdom.

    Energy

    Tonga is installing tailor-made policies to power its remote islands in a sustainable way – without turning to expensive grid-extensions. A number of islands within the Kingdom of Tonga are lacking basic electricity supply. In view of the decreasing reliability of fossil-fuel electricity generation, its increasing costs and negative environmental side-effects, renewable energy solutions have attracted the government’s attention. Together with IRENA, Tonga has charted out a renewable energy based strategy to power the main and outer islands alike. The strategy focuses on Solar Home Systems that turn individual households into small power plants. In addition, it calls for the involvement of local operators, finance institutions and technicians to provide sustainable business models as well as strategies to ensure the effective operation, management and maintenance once the systems are installed. 29 -

    Demographics
    Demographics of Tonga
    / /
    Demographics of Tonga, data of FAO, year 2005;number of inhabitants in thousands
    Over 70% of the 101,991 inhabitants of the Kingdom of Tonga live on its main island, Tongatapu. Although an increasing number of Tongans have moved into the only urban and commercial centre, Nukuʻ alofa, where European and indigenous cultural and living patterns have blended, village life and kinship ties continue to be important throughout the country.

    Tongans, Polynesian by ethnicity with a very small mixture of Melanesian, represent more than 98% of the inhabitants. The rest are European (the majority are British), mixed European, and other Pacific Islanders. There were approximately 3,000 or 4,000 Chinese in Tonga in 2001, thus comprising 3 or 4% of the total Tongan population. 30 - In 2006, Nukuʻ alofa riots mainly targeted Chinese-owned businesses, leading to the emigration of several hundred Chinese. 31 -

    Primary education between ages 6 and 14 is compulsory and free in state schools. Mission schools provide about 8% of the primary and 90% of the secondary level of education. State schools make up for the rest. Higher education includes teacher training, nursing and medical training, a small private university, a woman's business college, and a number of private agricultural schools. Most higher education is pursued overseas.

    The Tongan language is the official language of the islands, along with English. Tongan is a Polynesian language which is closely related to Wallisian (Uvean), Niuean, Hawaiian, and Samoan.

    70% of Tongan women aged 15–85 are obese. Tonga and nearby Nauru have the world’s highest overweight and obese populations. 32 -

    Religion
    Everyday life is heavily influenced by Polynesian traditions and especially by the Christian faith;for example, all commerce and entertainment activities cease from midnight Saturday until midnight Sunday, and the constitution declares the Sabbath to be sacred, forever. A clear majority of Tongans adhere to the Methodist tradition 33 - [see figures below] with a significant Catholic minority and a good number who are members of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints(The Church's website 34 - lists membership as of 2010 to be 55,173). The official figures from the latest government census of 2006 (cf. www.pmo.gov.to/tongastats) show that the four major church affiliations in the kingdom stood as follows:
    Free Wesleyans (38,052 or 37%
    LDS Church (17,109 or 17%
    Catholics (15,992 or 16%
    Free Church of Tonga (11,599 or 11%
    Culture and diaspora
    Culture of Tonga
    / /
    Kava culture
    Tonga has been inhabited for perhaps 3,000 years, since settlement in late Lapita times. The culture of its inhabitants has surely changed greatly over this long time period. Before the arrival of European explorers in the late 1600s and early 1700s, the Tongans were in frequent contact with their nearest Oceanic neighbor, Fiji &Niue. In the 1800s, with the arrival of Western traders and missionaries, Tongan culture changed dramatically. Some old beliefs and habits were thrown away, and others adopted. Some accommodations made in the 1800s and early 1900s are now being challenged by changing Western civilization.
    / /
    The start of a Tongan ula dance.
    Contemporary Tongans often have strong ties to overseas lands. Many Tongans have emigrated to Australia, New Zealand, and the United States to seek employment and a higher standard of living. U.S. cities with significant Tongan American populations include Seattle, Washington;Portland, Oregon;Anchorage, Alaska;Inland Empire, California;San Mateo, California;East Palo Alto, California;San Bruno, California;Oakland, California;Inglewood, California;Los Angeles, California;Salt Lake City, Utah;Honolulu, Hawaii;Reno, Nevada, and Euless, Texas (in the Dallas/Fort Worth metroplex). Large Tongan communities can also be found in Tutuila, American Samoa, Auckland, New Zealand, and in Melbourne and Sydney, Australia. This Tongan diaspora is still closely tied to relatives at home, and a significant portion of Tonga's income derives from remittances to family members (often aged) who prefer to remain in Tonga.
    Sport
    Sport in Tonga