Nauru

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.:Nauru
Republic of Nauru Ripublik Naoero
- - -
Flag - Coat of arms
Motto:"God's Will First"
Anthem:Nauru Bwiema
-
Capital - Yaren ( de facto )a -
Official language(s) - English, Nauruan
Demonym - Nauruan
Government
President - Marcus Stephen
Independence
from the Australian, New Zealand, and British-administered U.N. trusteeship. - 31 January 1968
Area
Total - 21 km (225th)
8.1 sq mi
Water (%) - 0.57
Population
March 2009 estimate - 14,019 - (216th
December 2006 census - 9,275
Density - 476.2/km (23rd)
1,233.3/sq mi
GDP (PPP) - 2006 estimate
Total - $36.9 million2 - (192nd
Per capita - $2,500 ('06 est.)2 - $5000 ('05 est.) - (135th - 141st
HDI (2003) - n/a (unranked ) (n/a
Currency - Usually the Australian dollar (AUD
Time zone - (UTC+12
Drives on the - left
Internet Domain name TLD - .nr
Calling code - 674
a. Nauru does not have an official capital, but Yaren is the largest settlement and the seat of Parliament.
Coordinates:0°31′38″S 166°56′12″E  /  0.527288°S 166.936724°E  / -0.527288;166.936724 Nauru (pronounced /nɑːˈʊəruː/ (-listen)nah- OO -r oo ), officially the Republic of Nauru and formerly known as Pleasant Island , is an island nation in Micronesia in the South Pacific. Its nearest neighbour is Banaba Island in Kiribati, 300 km to the east. Nauru is the world's smallest island nation, covering just 21 square kilometres (8.1 sq mi). -

Settled by Micronesian and Polynesian people, Nauru was annexed and claimed as a colony by the German Empire in the late 19th century. After World War I, Nauru became a League of Nations mandate administered by Australia, New Zealand, and the United Kingdom. During World War II, Nauru was occupied by Japanese troops who were bypassed by the Allied advance across the Pacific, and after the war ended, it entered into trusteeship again. - Nauru was declared independent in 1968.

Throughout the first half of the 20th century, Nauru was a "rentier state". Nauru is a phosphate rockisland, with deposits close to the surface, which allow for simple strip mining operations. This island was a major exporter of phosphate starting in 1907, when the Pacific Phosphate Company began mining there, through the formation of the British Phosphate Commission in 1919, and continuing after independence. This gave Nauru back full control of its minerals under the Nauru Phosphate Corporation, until the deposits ran out during the 1980s. - For this reason, Nauru briefly boasted the highest per-capita income enjoyed by any sovereign state in the world during the late 1960s and early 1970s. When the phosphate reserves were exhausted, and the environment had been seriously harmed by mining, the trust established to manage the island's wealth became greatly reduced in value. To earn income, the government resorted to unusual measures. In the 1990s, Nauru briefly became a tax haven and illegal money laundering centre. From 2001 to 2008, it accepted aid from the Australian government in exchange for housing an Nauru detention centre that held and processed those who had tried to enter Australia in an irregular manner.5 -

From December 2005 to September 2006, Nauru became partially isolated from the outside world when Air Nauru, the only airline with service to the island, ceased to operate. The only outside access to Nauru was then by ocean-going ships. The airline was able to restart operations under the name Our Airline with monetary aid from Taiwan. The island has one airport;Nauru International Airport.

On 23 April 2008, Nauru became the 34th state to recognise Kosovo. On 15 December 2009 Nauru became the fourth country to recognise Abkhazia,6 - and on 16 December recognised South Ossetia,7 - regions claimed by Georgia which had been de facto independent since the early 1990s and were recognised as such by Russia after the brief 2008 South Ossetia War. Reports suggest that this decision netted Nauru Russian aid of around US$50,000,000.6 - Nauru is the only state in the world to recognise Abkhazia and South Ossetia as well as Kosovo.

1 - History
1.1 - Colonial period
1.2 - World War II
1.3 - Independence
2 - Politics
3 - Foreign relations
4 - Geography
5 - Economy
6 - Demographics
7 - Culture
8 - See also
9 - Further reading
10 - References
11 -
History
History of Nauru
-
Nauruan warrior, 1880
Nauru was first inhabited by Micronesian and Polynesian people at least 3,000 years ago. There were traditionally 12 clans or tribes on Nauru, which are represented in the 12-pointed star in the nation's flag. Nauruans traced their descent on the female side. Nauruans practiced aquaculture - they caught juvenile ibija fish, acclimatised them to fresh water, and raised them in the Buada Lagoon, providing an additional, and more reliable source of food. The other locally grown components of their diet included coconuts and pandanus fruit.8 -

The British sea captain John Fearn, a whale hunter, became the first Westerner to visit this island in 1798, and he named it "Pleasant Island". From around 1830, Nauruans had contact with Europeans from whaling ships and traders who replenished their supplies (such as fresh water) at Nauru. Around this time, deserters from the ships began to live on the island. The islanders traded food for alcoholic palm wine and firearms. The firearms were used during the 10-year Nauruan Tribal War that began in 1878, and by 1888 had resulted in a reduction of the population of Nauru from 1400 to 900 people.

Colonial period
-
3 October 1888:Annexation ceremony w. King Auweyida at the centre
Nauru was annexed by Germany in 1888 and incorporated into Germany's Marshall Island Protectorate. The Germans called the island Nawodo or Onawero. The arrival of the Germans ended the war, and social changes brought about by the war established kings as rulers of the island. The most widely known of these was King Auweyida. Christian missionaries from the Gilbert Islands arrived in 1888.9 - The Germans ruled Nauru for almost three decades. Robert Rasch, a German Trader who married a native woman, was the first administrator, appointed in 1890.

Phosphate was discovered on Nauru in 1900 by the prospector Albert Ellis. The Pacific Phosphate Company started to exploit the reserves in 1906 by agreement with Germany. The company exported its first shipment in 1907.10 - In 1914, following the outbreak of World War I, Nauru was captured by Australian troops. Australia, New Zealand, and the United Kingdom signed the Nauru Island Agreement in 1919, creating a board known as the British Phosphate Commission (BPC). This took over the rights to phosphate mining.11 - According to the Commonwealth Bureau of Census and Statistics (now the Australian Bureau of Statistics), "In common with other natives, the islanders are very susceptible to tuberculosis and influenza, and in 1921 an influenza epidemic caused the deaths of 230 islanders." In 1923, the League of Nations gave Australia a trustee mandate over Nauru, with the United Kingdom and New Zealand as co-trustees.12 - 13 -

World War II
-
In 1943, the U.S. Army Air Force bombed the Japanese airstrip here, destroying about 15 Japanese warplanes14 -
On the 6th and 7 December 1940, the German auxiliary cruisers Komet and Orion sank four supply ships in the vicinity of Nauru. On the next day, Komet shelled Nauru's phosphate mining areas, oil storage depots, and the shiploading cantilever. The attacks seriously disrupted phosphate supplies to Australia and New Zealand (mostly used for munition and fertiliser purposes.)14 -

Japanese troops occupied Nauru on 26 August 1942.15 - The Japanese troops built an airfield on Nauru which was bombed for the first time on 25 March 1943, preventing food supplies from being flown to Nauru. The Japanese deported 1,200 Nauruans to work as labourers in the Chuuk islands.14 - Nauru, which had been bypassed and left to "wither on the vine" by American forces, was finally set free from the Japanese on 13 September 1945, when Captain Solda, the commander of all the Japanese troops on Nauru, surrendered the island to the Royal Australian Navy and Army. This surrender was accepted by the brigadier J. R. Stevenson, who represented Lieutenant General Sturdee, the commander of the First Australian Army, on board the warship HMAS Diamantina16 - Arrangements were made to repatriate from Chuuk the 737 Nauruans who survived Japanese captivity there. They were returned to Nauru by the BPC ship Trienza in January 1946.17 - In 1947, a trusteeship was established by the United Nations, and Australia, New Zealand, and the United Kingdom became the U.N. trustees of the island.

Independence
Nauru became self-governing in January 1966, and following a two-year constitutional convention, it became independent in 1968, led by founding president Hammer DeRoburt. In 1967, the people of Nauru purchased the assets of the British Phosphate Commissioners, and in June 1970, control passed to the locally owned Nauru Phosphate Corporation. Income from the exploitation of phosphate gave Nauruans one of the highest living standards in the Pacific and the world.18 -

In 1989, Nauru took legal actions against Australia in the International Court of Justice over Australia's actions during its administration of Nauru. In particular, Nauru made a legal complaint against Australia's failure to remedy the environmental damage caused by phosphate mining.19 - Certain Phosphate Lands:Nauru v. Australia led to an out-of-court settlement to rehabilitate the mined-out areas of Nauru.

Politics
Main articles:Politics of Nauru and Districts of Nauru
-
The Nauruan parliament.
Nauru is a republic with a parliamentary system of government. The president is both the head of state and of government. An 18-member unicameral parliament is elected every three years. The parliament elects a President from its members, and the President appoints a cabinet of five to six members. Nauru does not have any formal structure for political parties. Candidates typically stand for office as independents. Fifteen of the 18 members of the current Parliament are independents, and alliances within the government are often formed on the basis of extended family ties.20 - Three parties that have sometimes been active in Nauruan politics are the Democratic Party, Nauru First, and the Centre Party.
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President Marcus Stephen.
Since 1992, local government has been the responsibility of the Nauru Island Council (NIC). The NIC has limited powers, and it functions as an advisor to the national government on local matters. The role of the NIC is to concentrate its efforts on local activities relevant to Nauruans. An elected member of the Nauru Island Council cannot simultaneously be a member of parliament.21 - Land tenure on Nauru is unusual:all Nauruans have certain rights to all land on the island, which is owned by individuals and family groups. Government and corporate entities do not own any land, and they must enter into a lease arrangement with the landowners to use land. Non-Nauruans cannot own land.22 -

Nauru had 17 changes of administration between 1989 and 2003.20 - Between 1999 and 2003, a series of no-confidence votes and elections resulted in two people, René Harris and Bernard Dowiyogo, leading the country for alternating periods. Dowiyogo died in office in March 2003 and Ludwig Scotty was elected as the President. Scotty was re-elected to serve a full term in October 2004. Following a vote of "no confidence" by Parliament against President Scotty on 19 December 2007, Marcus Stephen became the President.

Nauru has a complex legal system. Its Supreme Court, headed by the Chief Justice, is paramount on constitutional issues. Other cases can be appealed to the two-judge Appellate Court. Parliament cannot overturn court decisions, but Appellate Court rulings can be appealed to the High Court of Australia.23 - However, in practice, this rarely happens. Lower courts consist of the District Court and the family Court, both of which are headed by a Resident Magistrate, who also is the Registrar of the Supreme Court. Finally, there also are two quasi-courts:the Public Service Appeal Board and the Police Appeal Board, both of which are presided over by the Chief Justice.24 -

Nauru with its small population has no armed forces. Under an informal agreement, its defence is the responsibility of Australia. There is a small police force under civilian control. -

Nauru is divided into fourteen administrative districts which are grouped into eight electoral constituencies. The districts are:

Aiwo
Anabar
Anetan
Anibare
Baiti
Boe
Buada
Denigomodu
Ewa
Ijuw
Meneng
Nibok
Uaboe
Yaren
Foreign relations
Foreign relations of Nauru
Following independence in 1968, Nauru joined the Commonwealth of Nations as a Special Member, and it became a full member in 2000. - Nauru was admitted to the Asian Development Bank in 1991 and to the United Nations in 1999. Nauru is a member of the Pacific Islands Forum, the South Pacific Regional Environmental Program, the South Pacific Commission, and the South Pacific Applied Geoscience Commission. The American Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program operates a climate-monitoring facility on Nauru.
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Symbol of the Pacific Islands Forum
Nauru and Australia have close diplomatic ties. In addition to the informal defence arrangements, the September 2005 Memorandum of Understanding between the two countries provides Nauru with financial aid and technical assistance, including a Secretary of Finance to prepare Nauru's budget, and advisers on health and education. This aid is in return for Nauru's housing of asylum seekers while their applications for entry into Australia are processed.20 - Nauru uses the Australian dollar as its official currency.

Nauru has used its position as a member of the United Nations to gain financial support from both the Republic of China (ROC) and the (PRC) by changing its position on the political status of Taiwan. During 2002, Nauru signed an agreement to establish diplomatic relations with the PRC on 21 July. Nauru accepted $130m from PRC for this action.25 - In response, the ROC severed diplomatic relations with Nauru two days later. Nauru later re-established links with the ROC on 14 May 2005,26 - and diplomatic ties with the PRC were officially severed on 31 May 2005. However, the PRC continues to maintain a diplomatic presence (a consulate?) on Nauru. Similarly in 2008, Nauru recognised Serbian break away region Kosovo as an independent country. Then, in 2009, Nauru became the fourth country, after Russia, Nicaragua, and Venezuela to recognise the breakaway region of Georgia, Abkhazia. Russia was reported to be giving Nauru $50M in humanitarian aid in return.27 -

In recent times, a significant portion of Nauru's income has been in the form of aid from Australia. In 2001, the MV Tampa , a Norwegian ship that had rescued 43328 - refugees (from various countries including Afghanistan) from a stranded 20-metre-long boat and was seeking to dock in Australia, was diverted to Nauru as part of the Pacific Solution. Nauru operated the detention centre in exchange for Australian aid. By November 2005, only two refugees, Mohammed Sagar and Muhammad Faisal, remained on Nauru from those first sent there in 2001,29 - with Sagar finally resettling in early 2007. The Australian government sent further groups of asylum-seekers to Nauru in late 2006 and early 2007.30 - In late January 2008, following Australia's decision to close the processing centre, Nauru announced that they will request a new aid deal to ease the resulting blow to the economy.31 -

Geography
Geography of Nauru
-
Map of Nauru
Nauru is a small, oval-shaped island in the southwestern Pacific Ocean, 42 km (26 miles) south of the Equator. The island is surrounded by a coral reef, which is exposed at low tide and dotted with pinnacles. The reef is bound seaward by deep water, and on the inside by a sandy beach. The presence of the reef has prevented the establishment of a seaport, although 16 artificial channels have been made in the reef to allow small boats access to the island. A 150 to 300 metre (about 500 to 1000 ft.) wide fertile coastal strip lies inland from the beach.

Coral cliffs surround Nauru's central plateau, which is known as "Topside". The highest point of the plateau, called the Command Ridge, is 71 metres above sea level.32 - The only fertile areas on Nauru are the narrow coastal belt, where coconut palms flourish. The land surrounding Buada Lagoon supports bananas, pineapples, vegetables, pandanus trees, and indigenous hardwoods such as the tomano tree. The population of Nauru is concentrated in the coastal belt and around Buada Lagoon.

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A limestone plateau surrounded by a coral reef, an airstrip, and channels, but no seaport.
Nauru was one of three great phosphate rock islands in the Pacific Ocean (the others were Banaba (Ocean Island) in Kiribati and Makatea in French Polynesia). However, the phosphate reserves on Nauru are depleted for all practical purposes. Phosphate mining in the central plateau has left a barren terrain of jagged limestone pinnacles up to 15 metres (49 ft) high. A century of mining has stripped and devastated about 80% of the land area. Mining has also impacted the surrounding Exclusive Economic Zone, with 40% of marine life estimated to have been killed by silt and phosphate runoff.33 -

There are quite limited natural fresh water resources on Nauru. Rooftop storage tanks collect rainwater, but the islanders are mostly dependent on a single, aging desalination plant. Nauru's climate is hot and very humid year-round—because of the proximity of the land to the Equator and the ocean. Nauru is hit by monsoon rains between November and February. Annual rainfall is highly variable and is influenced by the El Niño-Southern Oscillation, with several significant recorded droughts.22 -

The temperature on Nauru ranges between 26 and 35° Celsius (79 to 95 °Fahrenheit) during the day and between 25 and 28° Celsius (77 to 82 °F.) at night ]. As an island nation, Nauru is quite vulnerable to climate change and sea level change, but to what degree is difficult to predict. At least 80% of the land of Nauru is well-elevated, but this area will be uninhabitable until the phosphate mining rehabilitation program is implemented.33 - Also, the agricultural area of Nauru is quite close to the seashore.

There are only about 60 recorded vascular plant species native to the island, none of which are endemic. Coconut farming, mining, and introduced species have caused serious disturbance to the native vegetation.22 - There are no native land mammals, but there are native birds, including the endemic Nauru Reed Warbler, insects, and land crabs. The Polynesian rat, cats, dogs, pigs, and chickens have been introduced to Nauru from ships, either accidentally or on purpose.

Economy
Economy of Nauru
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An aerial image of Nauru in 2002 from the U.S. Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program. Regenerated vegetation covers 63% of land that was mined.33 -
The Nauruan economy peaked in the early 1980s. Nauru's economy depends almost entirely on the phosphate deposits that originate from the droppings of sea birds. There are few other resources, and most necessities are imported.34 - Small-scale mining is still conducted by the RONPhos, formerly known as the Nauru Phosphate Corporation. The government places a percentage of RONPhos's earnings into the Nauru Phosphate Royalties Trust. The Trust manages long-term investments, intended to support the citizens once the phosphate reserves have been exhausted.

The Trust's fixed and current assets, many of which were in Melbourne, were reduced considerably, and many never fully recovered. Some of the failed investments included financing 1993's Leonardo the Musical, which was a financial failure, the purchase of the vacant Carlton and United Breweries site on Swanston Street in 1994 which was sold undeveloped in 1998, a loan to the Fitzroy Football Club which went into liquidation in 1996, and the Queen Victoria Village site which was repossessed in 1999.

The Mercure Hotel in Sydney35 - and Nauru House in Melbourne were sold in 2004 to finance debts and Air Nauru's only Boeing 737, which was repossessed in December 2005. Normal air service resumed after the aircraft was replaced with a Boeing 737-300 airliner in June 2006.36 - 37 -

The value of the Trust is estimated to have shrunk from 1,300 million Australian dollars in 1991 to 138 million dollars in 2002.38 - In 2005, the corporation sold its property asset in Melbourne, the vacant Savoy Tavern site, for $7.5 million.39 - Nauru currently lacks money to perform many of the basic functions of government. For example, the National Bank of Nauru is insolvent. The CIA World Factbook estimated GDP per capita at $5,000 in 2005. - The Asian Development Bank 2007 economic report on Nauru estimated GDP per capita at $2400 to $2715.2 -

-
Limestone pinnacles remain after phosphate mining removed the guano.
There are no personal taxes in Nauru. The unemployment rate is estimated to be 90%, and the government employs 95% of those Nauruans who do work. - 40 - The Asian Development Bank notes that although the Administration has a strong public mandate to implement economic reforms, in the absence of an alternative to phosphate mining, the medium-term outlook is for continued dependence on external assistance.38 - The rental of tuna fishing opportunities within the Nauru Exclusive Economic zone generates significant revenue. Tourism is not a major contributor to the economy, because there is little to see or do here, and there are few facilities for tourists. The Menen Hotel and the OD-N-Aiwo Hotel are the only two hotels on the island.

In the 1990s, Nauru became a tax haven and it offered passports to foreign nationals for a fee. The inter-governmental Financial Action Task Force on Money Laundering (FATF) then identified Nauru as one of 15 "non-cooperative" countries in its fight against money laundering. During the 1990s, it was possible to establish a licensed bank in Nauru for only $25,000 with no other requirements. Under pressure from FATF, Nauru introduced anti-avoidance legislation in 2003, after which foreign hot money left the country. In October 2005, after satisfactory results from the legislation and its enforcement, FATF lifted the non-cooperative designation.41 -

From 2001 to 2007, the Nauru detention centre provided a source of income for Nauru. The Nauruan authorities reacted with concern to its closure by Australia.42 - In February 2008, the Foreign Affairs Minister, Dr. Kieren Keke, stated that it would result in 100 Nauruans losing their jobs, and would affect 10% of the island's population directly or indirectly:

"We have got a huge number of families that are suddenly going to be without any income. We are looking at ways we can try and provide some welfare assistance but our capacity to do that is very limited. Literally we have got a major unemployment crisis in front of us."43 -
Demographics
Demographics of Nauru
-
Nauruan districts of Denigomodu and Nibok
Nauru had 9,265 residents at end of 2006.2 - The population was previously larger, but in 2006 some 1500 people left the island during a repatriation of immigrant workers from Kiribati and Tuvalu. The repatriation was motivated by wide-scale reductions-in-force in the phosphate mining industry.2 - The official language of Nauru is Nauruan, a distinct Pacific island language, which is spoken by 96% of ethnic Nauruans at home.2 - English is widely spoken and it is the language of government and commerce, as Nauruan is not common outside of the country.
-
Civic Centre, Aiwo District
The top ethnic groups of Nauru are Nauruan (58%), other Pacific Islander (26%), European (8%), and Chinese (8%). All Europeans are of British origin, and most of these have left since independence. The main religion practiced on the island is Christianity (two-thirds Protestant, one-third Roman Catholic). There is also a sizeable Bahá'í population (10%) --- the largest proportion of any country in the world44 - --- and a Buddhist population (3%). The Constitution provides for freedom of religion. However, the government restricts this right in some circumstances, and it has restricted the practice of religion by The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints and members of the Jehovah's Witnesses, most of whom are foreign workers employed by the government-owned Nauru Phosphate Corporation.45 -

Literacy on Nauru is 96%, and education is compulsory for children from six to 15 years old, and two more non-compulsory years are offered (years 11 and 12).46 - There is a campus of the University of the South Pacific on Nauru. Before this school was built, eligible students travelled to Australia, New Zealand, etc., for their college educations.

Nauruans are among the most obese people in the world. 90% of adults have a higher BMI than the world average.47 - Nauru has the world's highest level of type 2 diabetes, with more than 40% of the population affected.48 - Other significant dietary-related problems on Nauru include kidney disease and heart disease. Life expectancy on Nauru in 2006 was 58.0 years for males and 65.0 years for females.49 -

Culture
Culture of Nauru
-
Open air assembly of Nauruans
Nauruans descended from Polynesian and Micronesian seafarers who believed in a female deity, Eijebong, and a spirit land, an island called Buitani. Two of the 12 original tribal groups became extinct in the 20th century. Angam Day, held on 26 October, celebrates the recovery of the Nauruan population after the two World Wars, which together reduced the indigenous population to fewer than 1500. The displacement of the indigenous culture by colonial and contemporary, western influences is significant. Few of the old customs have been preserved, but some forms of traditional music, arts and crafts, and fishing are still practiced.

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Australian rules football, played at Linkbelt Oval
There are no daily news publications on Nauru, but there are several weekly or fortnightly publications, including the Bulletin , the Central Star News and The Nauru Chronicle . There is a state-owned television station, Nauru Television (NTV), which broadcasts programmes from New Zealand, and there is a state-owned non-commercial radio station, Radio Nauru, which carries programs from Radio Australia and the BBC.50 -

Australian rules football is the most popular sport in Nauru. There is a football league with seven teams. All games are played at Nauru's only stadium, the Linkbelt Oval. Other sports popular in Nauru include softball, cricket, golf, sailing, tennis, rugby (both union and league), and Association Football. Nauru participates in the Commonwealth Games and the Summer Olympic Games, where team members have been somewhat successful in weightlifting. Marcus Stephen has been a medallist, and he was elected to Parliament in 2003, and was elected as President of Nauru in 2007.

A traditional activity is catching noddy terns when they return from foraging at sea. At sunset, men stand on the beach ready to throw their lassos at the incoming birds. The Nauruan lasso is supple rope with a weight at the end. When a bird approaches, the lasso is thrown up, hits or drapes itself over the bird, which falls to the ground. The noddy is then killed, plucked, cleaned, cooked, and eaten.51 -

See also
- - Geography portal
- - Australia portal
Outline of Nauru
Index of Nauru-related articles
Further reading
John M. Gowdy, Carl N. McDaniel (2000). Paradise for Sale:A Parable of Nature . Berkeley, U.S.;Los Angeles, U.S.;London, U.K.:University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-22229-8.
References
  • ^ a b c d e f Central Intelligence Agency (2009). "Nauru". The World Factbook . https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/nr.html
  • ^ a b c d e f "Country Economic Report:Nauru". Asian Development Bank . adb.org/Documents/CERs/NAU/CER-NAU-2007.pdf.
  • "Historia - Nauru - Onet.pl - WIEM Lajt". Lajt.onet.pl . lajt.onet.pl/encyklopedia/6482,6237,haslo_detal.html
  • ^ a b Republic of Nauru Permanent Mission to the United Nations URL Accessed 10 May 2006
  • "Australia ends 'Pacific Solution'". BBC News. 8 Feb. 2008 . news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/7229764.stm.
  • ^ a b New York Times report of Nauru's recognition for Abkhazia
  • Науру признало Южную Осетию. - Грани.ру, 16.12.2009
    McDaniel, C. N. and Gowdy, J. M. (2000.). Paradise for Sale . University of California Press. pp. 13–28. ISBN 0-520-22229-6.
    Ellis, A. F. 1935. Ocean Island and Nauru - their story . Angus and Robertson Limited. pp 29–39
    Ellis, A. F. 1935. Ocean Island and Nauru - their story . Angus and Robertson Limited. pp 127–139
    Official Year Book of the Commonwealth of Australia No. 35 - 1942 and 1943. Austràlia Commonwealth Bureau of Census and Statistics (now Australian Bureau of Statistics . books.google.com/books?id=MAcIBRGr5JEC&pg=PA256&dq=British+Phosphate+Commission#v=onepage&q=British%20Phosphate%20Commission&f=false.
    Cain, Timothy M., comp. "Nauru." The Book of Rule. 1st ed. 1 vols. New York:DK Inc., 2004.
    "Agreement (between Australia, New Zealand and United Kingdom) regarding Nauru". Austlii.edu.au . austlii.edu.au/au/other/dfat/treaties/1923/11.html
  • ^ a b c Haden, J. D. 2000. Nauru:a middle ground in World War II Pacific Magazine URL Accessed 5 May 2006
  • Lundstrom, John B., The First Team and the Guadalcanal Campaign , Naval Institute Press, 1994, p. 175.
    The Times, 14 September 1945
    Garrett, J. 1996. Island Exiles . ABC. ISBN 0-7333-0485-0. pp176–181
    Nauru seeks to regain lost fortunes Nick Squires, 15 March 2008, BBC News Online.
    Highet, K and Kahale, H. 1993. Certain Phosphate Lands in Nauru. The American Journal of International Law 87:282–288
  • ^ a b c Australian Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade. Republic of Nauru Country Brief - November 2005 URL accessed on 2 May 2006.
  • Ogden, M.R. Republic of Nauru URL Accessed 2 May 2006. Archived April 26, 2006 at the Wayback Machine.
  • ^ a b c Nauru Department of Economic Development and Environment. 2003 First National Report To the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD) URL Accessed 3 May 2006 Archived May 24, 2006 at the Wayback Machine.
  • Nauru (High Court Appeals) Act (Australia) 1976. Australian Legal Information Institute.
  • State Department Bureau of East Asian and Pacific Affairs September 2005 URL Accessed 11 May 2006
  • Luke Harding in Moscow. "Tiny Nauru struts world stage by recognising breakaway republics". Guardian . guardian.co.uk/world/2009/dec/14/nauro-recognises-abkhazia-south-ossetia
    AAP. 14 May 2005. Taiwan Re-establishes Diplomatic Ties with Nauru URL Accessed 5 May 2006 dead link -
    Harding, Luke (14 December 2009). "Tiny Nauru struts world stage by recognising breakaway republics". The Guardian . guardian.co.uk/world/2009/dec/14/nauro-recognises-abkhazia-south-ossetia
    AAP. "The Bulletin publishes for the last time". Bulletin.ninemsn.com.au . bulletin.ninemsn.com.au/article.aspx?id=130456
  • Gordon, M. 5 November 2005. Nauru's last two asylum seekers feel the pain. The Age URL Accessed 8 May 2006
  • ABC News. 12 February 2007. Nauru detention centre costs $2m per month. ABC News Online'.'
  • ABC News. 31 January 2008. Nauru wants aid deal after camp closure. ABC News Online'.'
  • (English) Republic of Nauru National Assessment Report
  • ^ a b c Republic of Nauru. 1999. Climate Change - Response. First National Communication - 1999. Under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, United Nations
  • Big tasks for a small island URL Accessed 10 May 2006
  • Nauru, receivers start swapping legal blows Craig Skehan, Sydney Morning Herald, 9 July 2004
    Receivers take over Nauru House. The Age URL Accessed 9 May 2006
    Air Nauru flight Schedule URL Accessed 2 May 2006.
  • ^ a b Asian Development Bank. 2005. Asian Development Outlook 2005 - Nauru URL Accessed 2 May 2006
  • Posted at 20:20 on 08 April, 2005 UTC (2005-04-08). "Nauru sells last remaining property asset in Melbourne - report". Rnzi.com . rnzi.com/pages/news.php?op=read&id=15983
  • "Paradise well and truly lost", The Economist , 20 December 2001 1 URL Accessed 2 May 2006. dead link -
  • FATF. 13 October 2005. Nauru de-listed URL Accessed 11 May 2006
    "Nauru fears gap when camps close", Jewel Topsfield, The Age , 11 December 2007
    "Nauru 'hit' by detention centre closure", The Age , 7 February 2008
    "Adherent.com's Largest Baha'i Communities". Adherents.com . adherents.com/largecom/com_bahai.html
    US Department of State. 2003. International Religious Freedom Report 2003 - Nauru URL accessed 2 May 2005.
    Waqa, B. 1999. UNESCO Education for all Assessment Country report 1999 Country:Nauru URL Accessed 2 May 2006.
    Obesity in the Pacific:too big to ignore. 2002. Secretariat of the Pacific Community ISBN 982-203-925-5
    King, H. and Rewers M. 1993. Diabetes in adults is now a Third World problem. World Health Organization Ad Hoc Diabetes Reporting Group. Ethnicity &Disease 3:S67–74.
    World Health Organization World health report 2005. Nauru URL
    BBC News. Country Profile:Nauru. URL Accessed 2 May 2006.
    Banaba/Ocean Island News. URL Accessed 11 May 2006. Archived June 26, 2006 at the Wayback Machine.
    This article incorporates public domain text from the websites of the United States Department of State &CIA World Factbook.
    Find more about Nauru on Wikipedia's sister projects:
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    Government
    Government of Nauru
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    General information
    Nauru entry at The World Factbook
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    Wikimedia Atlas of Nauru
    Travel
    Discover Nauru The Official Nauru Tourism Website
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    Our Airline - the former Air Nauru
    Our Airline Flight Schedule
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    High resolution aerial views of Nauru on Google Maps
    Six Fivers
    Nauru country information on globalEDGE
    CenPac - The ISP of the Republic of Nauru
    Radio program "This American Life" featured a 30-minute story on Nauru
    Asian Development Bank Country Economic Report, Nauru, November, 2007
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    Gnome-globe.svg Geographic locale Lat. and Long. 0°31′38″S 166°56′12″E  /  0.527288°S 166.936724°E  / -0.527288;166.936724(Yaren
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    20th century
    1907–1949 Dominion of Newfoundland 3

    Occupied jointly with the United States
    2In 1931, Canada and other British dominions obtained self-government through the Statute of Westminster. see Canada's name.
    3Gave up self-rule in 1934, but remained a de jure Dominion until it joined Canada in 1949.

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    1605–1979 * Saint Lucia
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    18th century
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    19th century
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    1860–1981 * Antigua and Barbuda
    1871–1964 British Honduras (*Belize)
    1882–1983 * St. Kitts and Nevis
    1889–1962 Trinidad and Tobago

    20th century
    1958–1962 West Indies Federation

    4Now the San Andrés y Providencia Department of Colombia

    Africa
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    19th century
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    20th century
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    1919–1960 Cameroons (Cameroon) 5
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    1954–1960 Nigeria

    5League of Nations mandate

    Asia
    17th Century
    1685-1824 Bencoolen
    (Sumatra)

    18th century
    1702–1705 Con Dao
    1757–1947 Bengal ( West Bengal (India) and Bangladesh )
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    1795–1948 Ceylon (Sri Lanka)
    1796–1965 Maldives

    19th century
    1819–1826 British Malaya ( Peninsular Malaysia and Singapore )
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    1891–1971 Muscat and Oman protectorate
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    1898–1930 Weihai Garrison
    1878–1960 Cyprus

    20th century
    1918–1961 Kuwait protectorate
    1920–1932 Iraq 5
    1921–1946 Transjordan 5
    1923–1948 Palestine 5
    1946–1948 Malayan Union
    1946–1963 Sarawak (Malaysia)
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    since 1965 British Indian Ocean Territory

    5League of Nations mandate

    Oceania
    18th century
    1788–1901 New South Wales

    19th century
    1803–1901 Van Diemen's Land/Tasmania
    1807–1863 Auckland Islands 6
    1824–1980 New Hebrides (Vanuatu)
    1824–1901 Queensland
    1829–1901 Swan River Colony/Western Australia
    1836–1901 South Australia
    since 1838 Pitcairn Islands
    1841–1907 Colony of New Zealand
    1851–1901 Victoria
    1874–1970 Fiji 7
    1877–1976 British Western Pacific Territories
    1884–1949 Territory of Papua
    1888–1965 Cook Islands 6
    1889–1948 Union Islands (Tokelau) 6
    1892–1979 Gilbert and Ellice Islands 8
    1893–1978 British Solomon Islands 9

    20th century
    1900–1970 Tonga (protected state)
    1900–1974 Niue 6
    1901–1942 * Commonwealth of Australia
    1907–1953 * Dominion of New Zealand
    1919–1942 Nauru
    1945–1968 Nauru
    1919–1949 Territory of New Guinea
    1949–1975 Territory of Papua and New Guinea 10

    6Now part of the * Realm of New Zealand
    7Suspended member
    8Now Kiribati and * Tuvalu
    9Now the * Solomon Islands
    10Now * Papua New Guinea

    Antarctica and South Atlantic
    17th century
    since 1659 St. Helena

    19th century
    since 1815 Ascension Island 11
    since 1816 Tristan da Cunha 11
    since 1833 Falkland Islands 12

    20th century
    since 1908 British Antarctic Territory 13
    since 1908 South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands 12, 13

    11Dependencies of St. Helena since 1922 (Ascension Island) and 1938 (Tristan da Cunha)
    12Occupied by Argentina during the Falklands War of April–June 1982
    13Both claimed in 1908;territories formed in 1962 (British Antarctic Territory) and 1985 (South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands)

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    Dark blue :Countries and territories where English is spoken natively by a significant population.
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    English language in Europe Languages of Malta Canadian English Quebec English Canadian English Languages of Alaska Falkland Islands English Scottish English Hiberno-English Mid Ulster English British English Languages of Lesotho South African English Languages of Swaziland Languages of Madagascar Languages of Mauritius Languages of Sierra Leone Liberian English Languages of Ghana Namlish Languages of Botswana Languages of Zimbabwe Languages of Zambia Malawian English Languages of Tanzania Languages of Rwanda Ugandan English Languages of Kenya Languages of the Sudan Languages of Eritrea Languages of Ethiopia Languages of Nigeria Cameroon English Pakistani English Indian English Australian English New Zealand English Languages of Papua New Guinea Languages of the Solomon Islands Languages of Palau Languages of the Federated States of Micronesia Languages of Fiji Languages of Malaysia Languages of Singapore Philippine English Hong Kong English Languages of the Marshall Islands Languages of Nauru Bahamian English American English Languages of the Cayman Islands Jamaican English Languages of Belize Saint Helena English Languages of Guyana Languages of Puerto Rico English of the Windward Islands and Leeward Islands Bermudian EnglishEnglish sometimes spoken here
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    English Wiktionary
    References from:Nauru from Wikipedia the free encyclopedia
    Languages
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