Niue

Niue

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Maps of Niue
.:Niue
Niuē Fekai
- - -
Flag - Coat of arms
Anthem:Ko e Iki he Lagi
-
Capital - Alofi
Official language(s) - Niuean, English
Demonym - Niuean
Government - Constitutional monarchy
Head of State - Queen Elizabeth II
Premier - Toke Talagi
Associated state
Constitution Act - 19 October 1974
Area
Total - 260 km
100 sq mi
Water (%) - 0
Population
July 2009 estimate - 1,398 (218
Density - 5.35/km (n/a)
13.9/sq mi
GDP (PPP) - estimate
Total - $7.6 million (not ranked
Currency - New Zealand dollar (There is also an unofficial Niue dollar) (NZD
Time zone - (UTC-11
Drives on the - left
Internet Domain name TLD - .nu
Calling code - 683
Niue (pronounced /ˈnjuːeɪ/ in English) is an island nation in the South Pacific Ocean. It is commonly known as the "Rock of Polynesia", and natives of the island call it "the Rock" for short. Niue is 2,400 kilometres northeast of New Zealand in a triangle between Tonga to the southwest, the Samoas to the northwest, and the Cook Islands to the southeast. The land area is 260 km with about 1400 people who are predominantly Polynesian.

Though self governing, Niue is in free association with New Zealand, and lacks full sovereignty. Queen Elizabeth II is Niue's head of state. Most diplomatic relations are conducted by New Zealand on Niue's behalf.

In 2003, Niue became the world's first "WiFi nation", in which free wireless Internet access is provided throughout the country by The Internet Users Society-Niue.

1 - History
2 - Politics
3 - Geography
3.1 - Climate
4 - Defence and foreign affairs
5 - Economy
  • 5.1 - Agriculture
  • 5.2 - Tourism
  • 6 - Media
    7 - Information technology
    8 - Culture
    8.1 - Religion
    9 - Renewable energy
    10 - Sport
    11 - See also
    12 - Further reading
    13 - References
    14 -
    History
    History of Niue
    -
    Interior of church building in Alofi, 1896. (photo by Thomas Andrew (1855-1939
    Niue was settled by Polynesians from Samoa around CE 900. - Further settlers (or invaders) arrived from Tonga in the 16th century. -

    Until the beginning of the 18th century, there appears to have been no national government or national leader. Before then, chiefs and heads of families exercised authority over segments of the population. Around 1700 the concept and practice of kingship appear to have been introduced through contact with Samoa or Tonga. From then a succession of patu-iki (kings) ruled the island, the first of whom was Puni-mata. Tui-toga, who reigned from 1875 to 1887, was the first Christian king.5 -

    The first European to sight Niue was Captain James Cook in 1774. Cook made three attempts to land on the island but was refused permission to do so by the Polynesian inhabitants. He named the island "Savage Island" because, legend has it, the natives that "greeted" him were painted in what appeared to Cook and his crew to be blood. However, the substance on their teeth was that of the hulahula, a native red banana.6 -

    For the next couple of centuries the island was known as Savage Island, until its original name Niu ē , which translates as "behold the coconut",7 - regained use. Its official name is still Niuē fekai (wild Niuē). ]

    -
    Coral chasm in Niue
    The next notable European visitors were from the London Missionary Society who arrived in 1846 on the "Messenger of Peace". After many years of trying to land a European missionary on Niue, a Niuean named Nukai Peniamina was forcibly abducted and trained as a Pastor at the Malua Theological College in Samoa. Peniamina returned as a missionary with the help of Toimata Fakafitifonua. He was finally allowed to land in Uluvehi Mutalau after a number of attempts in other villages had failed. The Chiefs of Mutalau village allowed Peniamina to land and assigned over 60 warriors to protect him day and night at the fort in Fupiu.

    Christianity was first taught to the Mutalau people before it was spread to all the villages on Niue;originally other major villages opposed the introduction of Christianity and had sought to kill Peniamina. The people from the village of Hakupu, although the last village to receive Christianity, came and asked for a "word of god";hence their village was renamed "Ha Kupu Atua" meaning "any word of god", or "Hakupu" for short.

    In 1887, King Fata-a-iki, who reigned from 1887 to 1896, offered to cede sovereignty to the British Empire, fearing the consequences of annexation by a less benevolent colonial power. The offer was not accepted until 1900.

    Niue was a British protectorate for a time, but the UK's direct involvement ended in 1901 when New Zealand annexed the island. Independence in the form of self-government was granted by the New Zealand parliament with the 1974 constitution, following a referendum in Niue in 1974 whom Niueans were given 3 options independence, self-government or continue as a New Zealand territory. The majority selected self-government and Niue's written constitution<paclii.org/nu/legis/num_act/ca1974188/index.html>was promulgated as supreme law. Robert Rex, ethnically part European, part native, was appointed the country's first premier, a position he held until his death 18 years later. Rex became the first Niuean to receive a knighthood, in 1984.

    In January 2004, Niue was hit by Cyclone Heta, which killed two people and caused extensive damage to the entire island, including wiping out most of the south of the capital, Alofi.

    Politics
    Politics of Niue
    The Niue Constitution Act vests executive authority in Her Majesty the Queen in Right of New Zealand and the Governor-General of New Zealand. The Constitution specifies that in everyday practice sovereignty is exercised by the Niue Cabinet of Ministers, comprising the premier and three other ministers. The premier and ministers are members of the Niue Legislative Assembly, the nation's parliament.

    The assembly consists of 20 democratically elected members, 14 of whom are elected by the electors of each villageconstituency, six by all registered voters in all constituencies. Electors must be New Zealand citizens, resident for at least three months, and candidates must be electors and resident for 12 months. ] Anyone born in Niue must register on the electoral roll. If two candidates have the same number of votes, the votes are recounted;if the number of votes is still equal, the name of the winning candidate is drawn out of a hat.

    The Speaker is elected by the assembly and is the first official to be elected in the first sitting of the Legislative Assembly following an election. The new Speaker calls for nominations for premier;the candidate with the most votes from the 20 members is elected. The Premier selects three other members to form the Cabinet of Ministers, the executive arm of government. The other two organs of government, following the Westminster model, are the Legislative Assembly and the Judiciary. General elections take place every three years, most recently on 7 June 2008.

    Geography
    Geography of Niue
    List of villages in Niue
    -
    Map of Niue
    -
    Niue coastline
    Niue is a 269 km² island in the southern Pacific Ocean, east of Tonga. The geographic coordinates are 19°03′48″S 169°52′11″W  /  19.06333°S 169.86972°W  / -19.06333;-169.86972 .

    There are three geographically outlying coralreefs within the Exclusive Economic Zone that do not have any land area:

    Beveridge Reef, at 20°00'S, 167°48'W, 240 km southeast, submerged atoll drying during low tide, 9.5 km North-South, 7.5 km East-West, total area 56 km², no land area, lagoon 11 metres deep
    Antiope Reef, at 18°15'S, 168°24'W, 180 km southeast, is a circular plateau approximately 400 metres in diameter, with a least depth of 9.5 metres
    Haran Reef (Harans Reef), at 21°33'S, 168°55'W, reported to break furiously, 294 km southeast
    Besides these, Albert Meyer Reef, (20°53'S, 172°19'W, almost 5 km long and wide, least depth 3 metres, 326 km southwest) is not officially claimed by Niue, and the existence of Haymet Rocks, (26°S, 160°W, 1273 km ESE) is in doubt.

    Niue is one of the world's largest coral islands. The terrain consists of steep limestonecliffs along the coast with a central plateau rising to about 60 metres above sea level. A coral reef surrounds the island, with the only major break in the reef being in the central western coast, close to the capital, Alofi. A notable feature is the number of limestone caves found close to the coast.

    The island is roughly oval in shape (with a diameter of about 18 kilometres), with two large bays indenting the western coast, Alofi Bay in the centre and Avatele Bay in the south. Between these is the promontory of Halagigie Point. A small peninsula, TePā Point (Blowhole Point), is close to the settlement of Avatele in the southwest. Most of the population resides close to the west coast, around the capital, and in the northwest.

    Some of the soils are geochemically very unusual. They are extremely highly weathered tropical soils, with high levels of iron and aluminium oxides (oxisol) and mercury, and they contain surprisingly high levels of natural radioactivity. There is almost no uranium, but the radionucleides Th-230 and Pa-231 head the decay chains. This is the same distribution of elements as found naturally on very deep seabeds, but the geochemical evidence suggests that the origin is extreme weathering of coral and brief sea submergence 120,000 years ago. Endothermal upwelling, by which mild natural volcanic heat draws deep seawater up through the porous coral, may also contribute.8 -

    No adverse health effects from the radioactivity or other trace elements have been demonstrated and calculations show that level of radioactivity would probably be much too low to be detected in the population. These unusual soils are very rich in phosphate, but it is not accessible to plants, being in the very insoluble form of iron phosphate, or crandallite. It is thought that rather similar radioactive soils may exist on Lifou and Mare near New Caledonia, and Rennell in the Solomon Islands, but no other locations are known.

    The time difference between Niue and mainland New Zealand is 23 hours during the Southern Hemisphere winter and 24 hours when the mainland uses Daylight Saving Time.

    Climate
    The island has a tropicalclimate, with most rainfall occurring between November and April.

    Climate data for Alofi, Niue
    Month - Jan - Feb - Mar - Apr - May - Jun - Jul - Aug - Sep - Oct - Nov - Dec - - Year
    Record high °C (°F) - 38
    (100)
    38
    (100)
    32
    (90)
    36
    (97)
    30
    (86)
    32
    (90)
    35
    (95)
    37
    (99)
    36
    (97)
    31
    (88)
    37
    (99)
    36
    (97)
    38
    (100
    Average high °C (°F) - 28
    (82)
    29
    (84)
    28
    (82)
    27
    (81)
    26
    (79)
    26
    (79)
    25
    (77)
    25
    (77)
    26
    (79)
    26
    (79)
    27
    (81)
    28
    (82)
    27
    (81
    Daily mean °C (°F) - 26
    (79)
    27
    (81)
    26
    (79)
    25
    (77)
    25
    (77)
    23
    (73)
    22
    (72)
    23
    (73)
    23
    (73)
    24
    (75)
    25
    (77)
    26
    (79)
    25
    (77
    Average low °C (°F) - 23
    (73)
    24
    (75)
    24
    (75)
    23
    (73)
    22
    (72)
    21
    (70)
    20
    (68)
    20
    (68)
    21
    (70)
    21
    (70)
    22
    (72)
    23
    (73)
    22
    (72
    Record low °C (°F) - 20
    (68)
    20
    (68)
    20
    (68)
    14
    (57)
    15
    (59)
    13
    (55)
    11
    (52)
    11
    (52)
    15
    (59)
    15
    (59)
    11
    (52)
    17
    (63)
    11
    (52
    Precipitation cm (inches) - 26
    (10.2)
    25
    (9.8)
    30
    (11.8)
    20
    (7.9)
    13
    (5.1)
    8
    (3.1)
    9
    (3.5)
    10
    (3.9)
    10
    (3.9)
    12
    (4.7)
    14
    (5.5)
    19
    (7.5)
    207
    (81.5
    Source:Weatherbase9 - 2009-08-03
    Defence and foreign affairs
    Niue has been self-governing in free association with New Zealand since 3 September 1974 when the people endorsed the Constitution in a plebiscite.10 - Niue is fully responsible for its internal affairs. Niue's position concerning its external relations is less clear cut. Section 6 of the Niue Constitution Act provides that:"Nothing in this Act or in the Constitution shall affect the responsibilities of Her Majesty the Queen in right of New Zealand for the external affairs and defence of Niue." Section 8 elaborates but still leaves the position unclear, providing "Effect shall be given to the provisions of sections 6 and 7 [concerning external affairs and defence and economic and administrative assistance respectively] of this Act, and to any other aspect of the relationship between New Zealand and Niue which may from time to time call for positive co-operation between New Zealand and Niue after consultation between the Prime Minister of New Zealand and the Premier of Niue, and in accordance with the policies of their respective Governments;and, if it appears desirable that any provision be made in the law of Niue to carry out these policies, that provision may be made in the manner prescribed in the Constitution, but not otherwise." 11 - The island has a representative mission in Wellington, New Zealand. Niue is also a member of the Pacific Islands Forum and a number of regional and international agencies. It is not a member of the United Nations, but is a state party to the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, the Ottawa Treaty and the Treaty of Rarotonga.

    Niue purported to establish diplomatic relations with the People's Republic of China on December 12, 2007.12 - However, in light of its Constitution it is uncertain whether Niue had the capacity to enter diplomatic relations with any country. Traditionally, Niue's foreign relations and defence have been regarded as the responsibility of New Zealand, which has full diplomatic relations with China. Furthermore the Joint Communique signed by Niue and China is different in its treatment of the Taiwan question from that agreed by New Zealand and China. New Zealand "acknowledged" China's position on Taiwan but has never expressly agreed with it, but Niue "recognizes that there is only one China in the world, the Government of the People's Republic of China is the sole legal government representing the whole of China and Taiwan is an inalienable part of the territory of China." 12 - Critics have asked whether Niueans can continue to benefit from free association with New Zealand and yet disregard New Zealand's advice and establish an independent foreign policy.13 -

    As part of Niue's contribution to World peace, Niue also sent about 200 soldiers as part of the Maori Batallion under New Zealand forces to the World War I efforts. books.google.com/books?id=8qDVcnZUCZIC&printsec=frontcover&cd=1&source=gb#v=onepage&q&f=false

    Economy
    Economy of Niue
    -
    Alofi, the capital of Niue.
    Niue's economy is small, with a GDP of NZ$17 million in 2003,14 - or US$10 million at purchasing power parity.15 - Most economic activity revolves around the government, as the government was traditionally in charge of organising and managing the affairs of the new country since 1974. However, since the economy has reached a stage where state regulation may now give way to the private sector, there is an ongoing effort to develop the private sector. Following Cyclone Heta, the government made a major commitment towards rehabilitating and developing the private sector.

    The government allocated $1 million for the private sector, which was spent on helping businesses devastated by the cyclone, and on the construction of the Fonuakula Industrial Park. This industrial park is now completed and some businesses are already operating from it. The Fonuakula Industrial Park is managed by the Niue Business Centre, a quasi-governmental organisation providing advisory services to businesses.

    Most Niuean families grow their own food crops for subsistence and some are sold at the Niue Makete in Alofi, some exported to their families in New Zealand. ] The Niuean taro is known in Samoa as "talo Niue" and in international markets as pink taro. Niue also exports taro to the New Zealand market. The Niue taro is a natural variety and is very resistant to pests.

    The Niue Government and the Reef Group from New Zealand started two joint ventures in 2003 and 2004 involving the development of the fisheries and noni ( Morinda citrifolia , a small tree with edible fruit). The Niue Fish Processors, Ltd is a joint venture company processing fresh fish, mainly tuna (yellow fin, big eye and albacore), for export to the overseas markets. NFP operates out of their state-of-the-art fish plant in Amanau Alofi South, completed and opened in October 2004.

    In August 2005, an Australian mining company, Yamarna Goldfields, suggested that Niue might have the world's largest deposit of uranium. By early September these hopes were seen as overoptimistic,16 - and in late October the company cancelled its plans to mine, announcing that exploration drilling had identified nothing of commercial value.17 - The Australian Securities and Investments Commission filed charges in January 2007 against two directors of the company, now called Mining Projects Group Ltd, alleging that their conduct was deceptive and they engaged in insider trading.18 - This case was settled out of court in July 2008, both sides withdrawing their claims.19 - There is an Australian company that had been issued a mineral prospecting license in the early 1970s which is still very active in doing research and collecting data on potential mineral deposits on Niue.

    Remittances from Niuean expatriates were a major source of foreign exchange in the 1970s and early 1980s. The continuous migration of Niueans to New Zealand has shifted most members of nuclear and extended families to New Zealand, removing the need to send remittances back home. In the late 1990s PFTAC conducted studies on the Niue balance of payments,20 - which confirmed that Niueans are receiving little remittances but are sending more monies overseas, mainly for paying for imported goods and for the education of Niuean students sent to study in New Zealand.

    Foreign aid, principally from New Zealand, has been the island's principal source of income. ]Although most Niuean foreign aid comes from New Zealand the island nation is currently losing $250,000 NZ a year (i.e. reduce in New Zealand funding) meaning the country will come to rely upon its own economy more in times to come.

    Government expenses consistently exceed revenue to a substantial degree, with aid from New Zealand subsidizing public service payrolls. The government also generates some revenue, mainly from income tax, import tax and the lease of phone lines. The government briefly flirted with the creation of "offshore banking", but, under pressure from the US Treasury, agreed to end its support for schemes designed to minimize tax in countries like New Zealand. Niue now provides an automated Companies Registration, which is administered by the New Zealand Ministry of Economic Development. The Niue Legislative Assembly passed the Niue Consumption Tax Act in the first week of February 2009, and the 12.5% tax on good and services is expected to come into effect on 1 April 2009. Income tax has been lowered, and import tax may be reset to zero except for "sin" items like tobacco, alcohol and soft drinks. Tax on secondary income has been lowered from 35% to 10%, with the stated goal of fostering increased labour productivity.21 -

    In 1997, the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA), under contract with the US Department of Commerce, assigned the Internet Users Society-Niue (IUS-N), a private charity, as manager of the .nutop-level domain on the Internet. IUS-N's charitable purpose was — and continues to be — to use revenue from registering .nu domain names to fund low-cost or free Internet services for the people of Niue. In a letter to ICANN in 2007, IUS-N's independent auditors reported IUS-N had invested US$3 million for Internet services in Niue between 1999 and 2005 from .nu domain name registration revenue during that period. In 1999, IUS-N and the Government of Niue signed an agreement whereby the Government recognized that IUS-N managed the .nu ccTLD under IANA's authority and IUS-N committed to provide free Internet services to government departments as well as to Niue's private citizens. A newly elected Government later disputed that agreement and attempted to assert a claim on the domain name, including a requirement for IUS-N to make direct payments of compensation to the Government.22 - In 2005 a Government-appointed Commission of Inquiry into the dispute released its report, which found no merit in the government's claims;the government subsequently dismissed the claims in 2007.23 - Starting in 2003 IUS-N began installing WiFi connections throughout the capital village of Alofi and in several nearby villages and schools, and has been expanding WiFi coverage into the outer villages since then, making Niue the first WiFi Nation.24 - To assure security for Government departments, IUS-N provides the government with a secure DSL connection to IUS-N's satellite Internet link, at no cost.

    In 2003 the Government made a commitment to develop and expand vanilla production with the support of NZAID. Vanilla has grown wild in Niue for a long time. Despite the setback caused by the devastation of Cyclone Heta in early 2004, there was ongoing work on vanilla production. The expansion plan started with the employment of unemployed or underemployed labour force to help clear land, plant supporting trees and plant vanilla vines. The approach to accessing land include having each household interested to have a small plot of around half to 1-acre (4,000 m) to be cleared and planted with vanilla vines. There are a lot of planting material for supporting trees to meet demand for the expansion of vanilla plantations, however there is a severe shortage of vanilla vines for planting stock. There is of course the existing vanilla vines, but cutting them for planting stock will reduce or stop vanilla from producing beans. At the moment the focus is in the areas of harvesting and marketing.

    Niue's economy suffered from the devastating tropical Cyclone Heta on 4 January 2004. The Niue Integrated Strategic Plan - NISP) is the national development plan, setting national priorities for development. Cyclone Heta took away about two years from the implementation of the NISP, while national efforts concentrate on the recovery efforts. In 2008 Niue had yet to fully recover from the devastation of Cyclone Heta.

    In the area of trade, Niue is currently in the process of negotiating with other Pacific countries free trade agreements(FTA) PICTA Trade in Services (PICTA TIS), Economic Partnership Agreements with the European Union, and PACER Plus with Australia and New Zealand. The Office of the Chief Trade Adviser (OCTA) has already been set up to assist Niue and other Pacific countries in the negotiation of the PACER Plus.

    Niue uses the New Zealand dollar.

    Agriculture

    Agriculture is very important to the lifestyle of Niueans and the economy. Subsistence agriculture is very much part of Niue's agriculture, where nearly all the households have plantations of taro. Taro is a staple food, and the pink taro now dominant in the taro markets in New Zealand and Australia, is an intellectual property of Niue. This is one of the natural taro varieties on Niue, and has a strong resistance to pests.

    Tapioca or cassava, yams and kumaras also grow very well, as do different varieties of bananas. Copra, passionfruit and limes dominated exports in the 1970s, but in 2008 vanilla, noni and taro are Niue's main export crops.

    Coconut crab is also part of the food chain;it lives in the forest and coastal areas. The last agricultural census was in 1989.

    Tourism

    Tourism has been identified as one of the three priority economic sectors (the other two are Fisheries and Agriculture) for economic development in Niue. In 2006, estimated visitor expenditure reached $1.6 million making Tourism a major export industry for Niue. Niue will continue to receive direct support from the Government and overseas donor agencies. Air New Zealand is the sole airline serving Niue, flying to Niue once a week. It took over after Polynesian Airlines stopped flying in November 2005. There is currently a tourism development strategy to increase the number of rooms available to overseas tourists at a sustainable level. Niue is also trying to attract foreign investors to invest in the tourism industry of Niue by offering import and company tax concessions as incentives.

    Media
    Niue has few media, due to its small size and population. It has two broadcast media outlets, Television Niue and Radio Sunshine, managed and operated by the Broadcasting Corporation of Niue, and one printed newspaper, the Niue Star .25 - The internet also provides opportunity for other news services like talanet.okakoa.com.
    Information technology
    The first computers were Apple machines brought in by the University of the South Pacific Extension Centre around the early 1980s. The Treasury Department first computerised their general ledger in 1986 using NEC personal computers which are IBM PC XT compatible. ] The Census of Households and Population in 1986 was the first to be processed using a personal computer with the assistance of David Marshall, FAO Adviser on Agricultural Statistics, advising UNFPA Demographer Dr Lawrence Lewis and Niue Government Statistician Bill Vakaafi Motufoou to switch from using manual tabulation cards. In 1987 Statistics Niue got its new personal computer NEC PC AT use for processing the 1986 census data;Niue's personnel were sent on training in Japan and New Zealand to use the new computer. Niue's first Computer Policy was developed and adopted in 1988. ]
    -
    Students using their OLPC laptops on the school yard
    In 2003, Niue became the first territory to offer free wireless internet to all its inhabitants.26 - In August 2008 it has been reported that 100 percent of primary and high school students have what is known as the OLPC XO-1, a specialised laptop by the One Laptop per Child project designed for children in the developing world.27 - Niue is also a location of tests for the OpenBTS project, which aims to deliver low-cost GSMbase stations built with open source software.28 -
    Culture
    -
    Niuean dancers at the Pasifika Festival
    Arguably Niue's most prominent artist and writer is John Pule. Author of The Shark That Ate the Sun , he also paints, both on canvas and on traditional tapa cloth.29 - In 2005, he co-wrote Hiapo:Past and Present in Niuean Barkcloth , a study of a traditional Niuean artform, with Australian writer and anthropologist Nicholas Thomas.30 -

    Taoga Niue is a newly established Government Department responsible for the preservation of the culture, tradition and heritage of Niue. Recognising its importance, the Government has added Taoga Niue as the sixth pillar of the Niue Integrated Strategic Plan (NISP).

    Religion
    Seventy-five percent of the population of Niue belong to the Ekalesia Nieue (a national Congregationalist body), while most of the rest are Latter-day Saints.31 - One point five percent of the population are Baha'i,32 - a relatively large proportion and ranking 19th worldwide on the list provided by Adherents.com.
    Renewable energy
    The European Union is helping Niue convert to using renewable energy. In July 2009 a solar panel system was installed, injecting about 50 kVA into the Niue national power grid. The solar panels are installed at Niue High School (20 kW), Niue Power Corporation office (1.7 kW)33 - and the Niue Foou Hospital (30 kW). The EU-funded grid-connected PV systems are supplied under the REP-5 programme and were installed recently by the Niue Power Corporation on the roofs of the high school and the power station office and on ground-mounted support structures in front of the hospital. They will be monitored and maintained by the NPC.34 -
    Sport
    Rugby union in Niue
    Despite Niue being a small country, a number of different sports are popular. Rugby union is a popular sport played both by men and women;Niue were the 2008 FORU Oceania Cup champions.35 - Netball is played only by women. There is a nine-hole golf course at Fonuakula. There is a lawn bowling green under construction. Football is popular as evidenced by the Niue Soccer Tournament.
    See also
    Outline of Niue
    Music of Niue
    Communications in Niue
    Transportation in Niue
    Niuean language
    Niuean diplomatic missions
    Geography of Niue
    Niue dollar
    Further reading
    Hekau, Maihetoe &al., Niue:A History of the Island , Suva:Institute of Pacific Studies (USP) &the government of Niue, 1982 [no ISBN]
    TRegear, Edward, "Niue:or Savage Island", The Journal of the Polynesian Society , vol.2, March 1893, pp. 11–16
    References
  • "Light Reading Mobile - Broadband - World's First WiFi Nation - Telecom News Wire". Unstrung.com . unstrung.com/document.asp?doc_id=35876
  • Encyclopedia Britannica, "Niue"
  • ibid
  • S. Percy Smith, Niuē-fekai (or Savage) Island and its People, 1903, pp.36-44
    Tony Horowitz, Blue Latitudes:Boldly Going Where Captain Cook Has Gone Before, 2002, Chapter 8
  • Marks, Kathy (2008-07-09). "World's smallest state aims to become the first smoke-free paradise island". The Independent . independent.co.uk/news/world/australasia/worlds-smallest-state-aims-to-become-the-first-smokefree-paradise-island-862977.html
  • Whitehead, N. E.;J. Hunt, D. Leslie, and P. Rankin (June 1993). "The elemental content of Niue Island soils as an indicator of their origin" (PDF). New Zealand Journal of Geology &Geophysics 36 (2):243–255 . rsnz.org/publish/nzjgg/1993/24.pdf
  • "Weatherbase:Historical Weather for Alofi, Niue". Weatherbase . weatherbase.com/weather/weatherall.php3?s=22819&refer=&units=metric
  • Masahiro Igarashi, Associated Statehood in International Law , p 167
    Section 8, Niue Constitution Act.
  • ^ a b "Full text of joint communique on the establishment of diplomatic relations between China and Niue". Xinhua News Agency. 2007-12-12 . news.xinhuanet.com/english/2007-12/12/content_7236560.htm
  • The Hive, Pacific Watch :Has Niue's Constitutional Status Changed?, December 16, 2007
    Country Information Paper - Niue, New Zealand Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade.
    "Niue". CIA World Factbook . cia.gov
    Yamarna loses passion for Niue's uranium, The Age, 2005-09-06.
    NIUE:No Mineable Uranium, Says Exploration Company, Pacific Magazine, 2005-11-03.
    Australian Securities and Investments Commission (2007-01-23). "ASIC takes action against directors of Melbourne mining company". Press release . asic.gov.au/asic/asic.nsf/byheadline/07-13+ASIC+takes+action+against+directors+of+melbourne+mining+company?openDocument
    Australian Securities and Investments Commission (2008-07-04). "ASIC discontinues proceedings against directors of Melbourne mining company". Press release . asic.gov.au/asic/asic.nsf/byheadline/08-148+ASIC+discontinues+proceedings+against+directors+of+Melbourne+mining+company?openDocument
    pftac.org
    "12.5% Niue Consumption Tax from 1 April". Niue Business News. 26 February 2009. Archived from the original on 2009-03-03 . webcitation.org/5ezPJua5q.
    "On a tiny island, catchy Web name sparks a battle". Post-gazette.com. 2006-03-29 . post-gazette.com/pg/06088/677770-96.stm
    Posted at 02:57 on 13 November, 2007 UTC (2007-11-13). "Niue government criticised over internet stance". Rnzi.com . rnzi.com/pages/news.php?op=read&id=36393
    wifination.org/
    "Le Programme international pour le développement de la communication de l'UNESCO soutient le journal de Niue", UNESCO, July 16, 2002
    Creating a Wireless Nation, IUSN White Paper, July 2003
    "One laptop for every Niuean child". BBC News . 2008-08-22 . news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/technology/7576573.stm
    "Niue Pilot System". Openbts.sourceforge.net . openbts.sourceforge.net/NiuePilot/
    "The Bifocal World of John Pule:This Niuean Writer and Painter Is Still Searching For A Place To Call Home", Scott Whitney, Pacific Magazine , July 1, 2002
    University of Otago
    "Predominant Religions in countries". Adherents.com . adherents.com/adh_predom.html#Congregational a> "Largest Baha'i communities". Adherents.com . adherents.com/largecom/com_bahai.html
    "Nuie - Tuila Office - Tuila overview". Sunny Portal . sunnyportal.com/Templates/PublicPageOverview.aspx?plant=08532994-451b-4b3b-a530-ca48b6ea4537&splang=en-US
    "Achievements for Niue". The European Commission's Delegation to the Pacific . delfji.ec.europa.eu/en/achievements/niue.htm
    "Niue take Oceania Cup rugby union final", ABC Radio Australia, September 1, 2008
    Find more about Niue on Wikipedia's sister projects:
    - - Definitions from Wiktionary
    - - Textbooks from Wikibooks
    - - Quotations from Wikiquote
    - - Source texts from Wikisource
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    Government
    Niuean Government official site
    General information
    Niue entry at The World Factbook
    Niue from UCB Libraries GovPubs
    Niue at the Open Directory Project
    Wikimedia Atlas of Niue
    Travel
    Niue Tourism Office
    Niue travel guide from Wikitravel
    Other
    Niue Film Commission
    Niue Island.nu portal for the people of Niue
    Niue Island food and caves
    Coordinates:19°03′S 169°55′W  /  19.05°S 169.917°W  / -19.05;-169.917

    v
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    Administrative divisions of New Zealand
    Supranational level - Realm of New Zealand
    National level - New Zealand - Tokelau - Cook Islands - Niue - - Ross Dependency
    Regions - 12 non-unitary regions 4 unitary regions Chatham Islands - Kermadec Islands sub-Antarctic islands
    Territorial authorities - 16 cities and 57 districts
    Notes - Some districts lie in more than one region These combine the regional and the territorial authority levels in one Special territorial authority Areas outside regional authority;these, plus the Chatham Islands and the Solander Islands, form the New Zealand outlying islands State administered by New Zealand States in free association with New Zealand Claimed by New Zealand
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    Culture of Indigenous Oceania
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    tabua
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    tattoo
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    Dugout (boat)
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    Modern Hawaiian outrigger
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    Walap
    Dance
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    fire dancing
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    meke
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    tāmūrē
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    'upa'upa
    Festivals
    Australia's Garma Festival
    Hawaiʻi's Aloha Festivals, Merrie Monarch Festival, and World Invitational Hula Festival
    Fiji
    New Zealand's Pasifika Festival
    The Pacific Community's Festival of Pacific Arts
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    Languages
    by area
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    Transcontinental country.
    by category
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    Literature
    v
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    Literature of Oceania
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    Transcontinental country.
    Music
    Austral Islands (French Polynesia)
    Australia
    Austronesia
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    didgeridoo
    Easter Island
    Fiji
    Guam
    Hawaiʻi
    Kiribati
    Lali
    Māori
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    Northern Mariana Islands
    Micronesia
    Federated States of Micronesia
    Nauru
    New Caledonia
    New Zealand
    Niue
    Palau
    Papua New Guinea
    Polynesia
    Sāmoa
    Slit drum
    Solomon Islands
    Tahiti
    Tokelau
    Tonga
    Tuvalu
    Vanuatu
    Wallis and Futuna
    Mythology
    Australian Aboriginal
    Fijian
    Māori
    Melanesian
    Menehune
    Micronesian
    Oceanian legendary creatures
    Polynesian
    Rapa Nui
    Vanuatu
    People
    Indigneous Australian
    Austronesian
    Chamorro
    Chatham Islander (Moriori or Rekohu)
    Fijian
    Hawaiian (kānaka maoli)
    Māori
    Marshallese
    Melanesian
    Micronesian
    Negrito
    Norfolk Islander
    Papuan
    Polynesian
    Indigenous Polynesian (Mā’ohi)
    Rapanui
    Rotuman
    Samoan
    Tahitian
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    Torres Strait Islander
    Religion
    v
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    Religion in Oceania
    Sovereign states
    Australia
    East Timor
    Fiji
    Indonesia
    Kiribati
    Papua New Guinea
    Marshall Islands
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    Nauru
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    Palau
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    Solomon Islands
    Tonga
    Tuvalu
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    Dependencies and
    other territories
    American Samoa
    Christmas Island
    Cocos (Keeling) Islands
    Cook Islands
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    Guam
    Hawaii
    New Caledonia
    Niue
    Norfolk Island
    Northern Mariana Islands
    Pitcairn Islands
    Rotuma
    Tokelau
    Wallis and Futuna
    Transcontinental country.
    Not included:Oceanian:cinema, (indigenous) currency, dress, folkore, cuisine. Also see Oceanian culture.
    v
    d
    e
    British Empire and Commonwealth of Nations
    Legend
    Current territory
    Former territory
    * now a Commonwealth Realm
    now a member of the Commonwealth of Nations

    Europe
    18th century
    1708–1757 Minorca
    since 1713 Gibraltar
    1763–1782 Minorca
    1798–1802 Minorca

    19th century
    1800–1964 Malta
    1801-1921 Ireland
    1807–1890 Heligoland
    1809–1864 Ionian Islands

    20th century
    1921-1937 Irish Free State

    North America
    17th century
    1607–1776 Virginia
    1610–1907 Newfoundland
    since 1619 Bermuda
    1620–1691 Plymouth Colony
    1629–1691 Massachusetts Bay Colony
    1632–1776 Maryland
    1636–1776 Connecticut
    1636–1776 Rhode Island
    1637–1662 New Haven Colony
    1663–1712 Carolina
    1664–1776 New York
    1665–1674 and 1702-1776 New Jersey
    1670–1870 Rupert's Land
    1674–1702 East Jersey
    1674–1702 West Jersey
    1680–1776 New Hampshire
    1681–1776 Pennsylvania
    1686–1689 Dominion of New England
    1691–1776 Massachusetts

    18th century
    1701–1776 Delaware
    1712–1776 North Carolina
    1712–1776 South Carolina
    1713–1867 Nova Scotia
    1733–1776 Georgia
    1763–1873 Prince Edward Island
    1763–1791 Quebec
    1763–1783 East Florida
    1763–1783 West Florida
    1784–1867 New Brunswick
    1791–1841 Lower Canada
    1791–1841 Upper Canada

    19th century
    1818–1846 Columbia District / Oregon Country
    1841–1867 Province of Canada
    1849–1866 Vancouver Island
    1853–1863 Colony of the Queen Charlotte Islands
    1858–1866 British Columbia
    1859–1870 North-Western Territory
    1862–1863 Stikine Territory
    1866–1871 Vancouver Island and British Columbia
    1867–1931 * Dominion of Canada 2

    20th century
    1907–1949 Dominion of Newfoundland 3

    Occupied jointly with the United States
    2In 1931, Canada and other British dominions obtained self-government through the Statute of Westminster. see Canada's name.
    3Gave up self-rule in 1934, but remained a de jure Dominion until it joined Canada in 1949.

    Latin America and the Caribbean
    17th century
    1605–1979 * Saint Lucia
    1623–1883 Saint Kitts (*Saint Kitts &Nevis)
    1624–1966 * Barbados
    1625–1650 Saint Croix
    1627–1979 * St. Vincent and the Grenadines
    1628–1883 Nevis (*Saint Kitts &Nevis)
    1629–1641 St. Andrew and Providence Islands 4
    since 1632 Montserrat
    1632–1860 Antigua (*Antigua &Barbuda)
    1643–1860 Bay Islands
    since 1650 Anguilla
    1651–1667 Willoughbyland (Suriname)
    1655–1850 Mosquito Coast (protectorate)
    1655–1962 * Jamaica
    since 1666 British Virgin Islands
    since 1670 Cayman Islands
    1670–1973 * Bahamas
    1670–1688 St. Andrew and Providence Islands 4
    1671–1816 Leeward Islands

    18th century
    1762–1974 * Grenada
    1763–1978 Dominica
    since 1799 Turks and Caicos Islands

    19th century
    1831–1966 British Guiana (Guyana)
    1833–1960 Windward Islands
    1833–1960 Leeward Islands
    1860–1981 * Antigua and Barbuda
    1871–1964 British Honduras (*Belize)
    1882–1983 * St. Kitts and Nevis
    1889–1962 Trinidad and Tobago

    20th century
    1958–1962 West Indies Federation

    4Now the San Andrés y Providencia Department of Colombia

    Africa
    18th century
    1792–1961 Sierra Leone
    1795–1803 Cape Colony

    19th century
    1806–1910 Cape Colony
    1816–1965 Gambia
    1856–1910 Natal
    1868–1966 Basutoland (Lesotho)
    1874–1957 Gold Coast (Ghana)
    1882–1922 Egypt
    1884–1966 Bechuanaland (Botswana)
    1884–1960 British Somaliland
    1887–1897 Zululand
    1888–1894 Matabeleland
    1890–1980 Southern Rhodesia (Zimbabwe)
    1890–1962 Uganda
    1890–1963 Zanzibar (Tanzania)
    1891–1964 Nyasaland (Malawi)
    1891–1907 British Central Africa Protectorate
    1893–1968 Swaziland
    1895–1920 East Africa Protectorate
    1899–1956 Anglo-Egyptian Sudan

    20th century
    1900–1914 Northern Nigeria
    1900–1914 Southern Nigeria
    1900–1910 Orange River Colony
    1900–1910 Transvaal Colony
    1906–1954 Nigeria Colony
    1910–1931 South Africa
    1911–1964 Northern Rhodesia (Zambia)
    1914–1954 Nigeria Colony and Protectorate
    1915–1931 South West Africa (Namibia)
    1919–1960 Cameroons (Cameroon) 5
    1920–1963 Kenya
    1922–1961 Tanganyika (Tanzania) 5
    1954–1960 Nigeria

    5League of Nations mandate

    Asia
    17th Century
    1685-1824 Bencoolen
    (Sumatra)

    18th century
    1702–1705 Con Dao
    1757–1947 Bengal ( West Bengal (India) and Bangladesh )
    1762–1764 Philippines
    1795–1948 Ceylon (Sri Lanka)
    1796–1965 Maldives

    19th century
    1819–1826 British Malaya ( Peninsular Malaysia and Singapore )
    1826–1946 Straits Settlements
    1839–1967 Colony of Aden
    1841–1997 Hong Kong
    1841–1941 Kingdom of Sarawak (Malaysia)
    1858–1947 British India ( India , Pakistan and Bangladesh , Burma)
    1882–1963 British North Borneo (Malaysia)
    1885–1946 Unfederated Malay States
    1888–1984 Sultanate of Brunei
    1888–1946 Sultanate of Sulu
    1891–1971 Muscat and Oman protectorate
    1892–1971 Trucial States protectorate
    1895–1946 Federated Malay States
    1898–1930 Weihai Garrison
    1878–1960 Cyprus

    20th century
    1918–1961 Kuwait protectorate
    1920–1932 Iraq 5
    1921–1946 Transjordan 5
    1923–1948 Palestine 5
    1946–1948 Malayan Union
    1946–1963 Sarawak (Malaysia)
    1948–1957 Federation of Malaya (Malaysia)
    since 1960 Akrotiri and Dhekelia (before as part of Cyprus)
    since 1965 British Indian Ocean Territory

    5League of Nations mandate

    Oceania
    18th century
    1788–1901 New South Wales

    19th century
    1803–1901 Van Diemen's Land/Tasmania
    1807–1863 Auckland Islands 6
    1824–1980 New Hebrides (Vanuatu)
    1824–1901 Queensland
    1829–1901 Swan River Colony/Western Australia
    1836–1901 South Australia
    since 1838 Pitcairn Islands
    1841–1907 Colony of New Zealand
    1851–1901 Victoria
    1874–1970 Fiji 7
    1877–1976 British Western Pacific Territories
    1884–1949 Territory of Papua
    1888–1965 Cook Islands 6
    1889–1948 Union Islands (Tokelau) 6
    1892–1979 Gilbert and Ellice Islands 8
    1893–1978 British Solomon Islands 9

    20th century
    1900–1970 Tonga (protected state)
    1900–1974 Niue 6
    1901–1942 * Commonwealth of Australia
    1907–1953 * Dominion of New Zealand
    1919–1942 Nauru
    1945–1968 Nauru
    1919–1949 Territory of New Guinea
    1949–1975 Territory of Papua and New Guinea 10

    6Now part of the * Realm of New Zealand
    7Suspended member
    8Now Kiribati and * Tuvalu
    9Now the * Solomon Islands
    10Now * Papua New Guinea

    Antarctica and South Atlantic
    17th century
    since 1659 St. Helena

    19th century
    since 1815 Ascension Island 11
    since 1816 Tristan da Cunha 11
    since 1833 Falkland Islands 12

    20th century
    since 1908 British Antarctic Territory 13
    since 1908 South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands 12, 13

    11Dependencies of St. Helena since 1922 (Ascension Island) and 1938 (Tristan da Cunha)
    12Occupied by Argentina during the Falklands War of April–June 1982
    13Both claimed in 1908;territories formed in 1962 (British Antarctic Territory) and 1985 (South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands)

    v
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    Austronesian-speakingcountries and territories
    Formosan
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    Malayo-Polynesian
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    Brunei
    Burma (Myanmar)
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    Cook Islands
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    East Timor
    Fiji
    French Polynesia
    Guam
    Hainan
    Indonesia
    Kiribati
    Madagascar
    Malaysia
    Marshall Islands
    FS Micronesia
    Nauru
    New Caledonia
    New Zealand
    Niue
    Northern Mariana Islands
    Orchid Island
    Palau
    Papua New Guinea
    Philippines
    Samoa
    Singapore
    Solomon Islands
    Sri Lanka
    Suriname
    Tokelau
    Tonga
    Tuvalu
    United States (Hawaii
    Vanuatu
    Vietnam
    Wallis and Futuna
    References from:Niue from Wikipedia the free encyclopedia
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