Tokelau

Tokelau

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Tokelau

Tokelau

Tokelau
- -
Flag - Coat of arms
Motto: "Tokelau mo te Atua" (Tokelauan)
"Tokelau for the Almighty"
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Capital - Nukunonu (main settlement, although each atoll has its own administrative centre.
Official language(s) - Tokelauan , English
Demonym - Tokelauan
Government - Constitutional monarchy
Head of State - Queen Elizabeth II
Administrator - John Allen (acting) (2009
Head of Government - Kuresa Nasau (February 2010
New Zealand territory
Tokelau Act - 1948
Area
Total - 10 km (228th)
5 sq mi
Water (%) - negligible
Population
July 2009 estimate - 1,416 (220th
2006 census - 1,466
Density - 115/km (86th)
298/sq mi
GDP (PPP) - 1993 estimate
Total - $1.5 million (227th
Per capita - $1,035 ( not ranked
Currency - New Zealand dollar (NZD
Time zone - (UTC-10
Drives on the - left
Internet Domain name TLD - .tk
Calling code - 690
Some data from the World Factbook (2004).
1. Tuhiga Igoa o te 2006 - 2006 Tokelau Census of Population and Dwellings. The Census population figure of 1,466 includes 392 usual residents of Tokelau who were absent on census night.
Tokelau (pronounced /ˈtoʊkəlaʊ/ ) is a territory of New Zealand that consists of three tropical coral atolls with a combined land area of 10 km and a population of approximately 1,400 in the South Pacific Ocean. The atolls lie north of the Samoas, east of Tuvalu, south of the Phoenix Islands, southwest of the more distant Line Islands (both islands groups belonging to Kiribati) and northwest of the Cook Islands.

The United NationsGeneral Assembly designated Tokelau a Non-Self-Governing Territory. Until 1976 the official name was Tokelau Islands . Tokelau is sometimes referred to by Westerners by the older, colonial name of The Union Islands .

1 - Etymology and consequences of name usage
2 - Geography
3 - History
3.1 - Western discovery and contact
  • 3.2 - Government
  • 4 - Politics
    5 - Economy
  • 5.1 - Internet domain names
  • 6 - Demographics
    7 - Sport
    8 - Healthcare and education
    9 - Communications
    10 - Cyclone Percy
    11 - Books and publications
    12 - See also
    13 - References
    14 -
    14.1 - Governance
    14.2 - Atolls
    Etymology and consequences of name usage
    The name Tokelau is a Polynesian word meaning "north wind". The islands were officially named the Union Islands and Union Group at unknown times. Tokelau Islands was adopted in 1946, which was contracted to Tokelau on 9 December 1976.

    The change in usage between Tokelau Islands and Tokelau marks a slight shift in emphasis, with consequences in regional diplomacy, in that the term Tokelau Islands clearly and substantially refers to a geographical expression, that is, a range of islands, whatever else it may connote. Thus it is not necessarily controversial to refer to a range of islands by one name, even though politically they may come under two jurisdictions.

    Whereas Tokelau can be taken to refer more immediately to some concept of nationhood, arguably infusing increased meaning to the draft 2006 independence constitution of Tokelau which, controversially or not, defines Swains Island, currently part of American Samoa, as part of the national territory.

    Geography
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    Map of all Tokelau Islands. Swains Island is shown to the south.
    Tokelau comprises three atolls in the South Pacific Ocean between 171° and 173° W longitude and and 10° S latitude, approximately midway between Hawaii and New Zealand. They lie about 500 km (311 mi) north of Samoa. The islands are Atafu, at one time known as the Duke of York Group, Nukunonu, also the Duke of Clarence Group, and Fakaofo, once Bowditch Island. Between them they comprise a land area of 10.8 km². There are no ports or harbours. Tokelau lies in the Pacific typhoon belt. A fourth island that is culturally, historically, and geographically, but not politically, part of the Tokelau chain is Swains Island (Olohega), under United States control since about 1900 and administered as part of American Samoa since 1925.

    The island was claimed by the United States pursuant to the Guano Islands Act as were the other three islands of Tokelau, which claims were ceded to Tokelau by treaty in 1979. In the draft constitution of Tokelau subject to the Tokelauan self-determination referendum in 2006, Olohega is claimed as part of Tokelau, a claim surrendered in the same 1979 treaty which established a boundary between American Samoa and Tokelau.

    Tokelau's claim to Swains is generally comparable to the Marshall Islands' claim to US-administered Wake Island, but the re-emergence of this somewhat dormant issue has been an unintended result of the United Nations' recent efforts to promote decolonization in Tokelau. Basically, Tokelauans have proved somewhat reluctant to push their national identity in the political realm: recent decolonization moves have mainly been driven from outside for ideological reasons. But at the same time, Tokelauans are reluctant to disown their common cultural identity with Swains Islanders who speak their language.

    Tokelau is in a different time zone from most of New Zealand, being 10 hours behind Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) rather than 12 hours in front, meaning a 22 hour time difference for much of the year (New Zealand has daylight saving time (DST) for part of the year while Tokelau never participates). Tokelau is in the same time zone as the Cook Islands and Hawaii rather than neighbouring Samoa and American Samoa. - -

    Geographic locations of Tokelau's atolls
    Atoll - Coordinates
    Atafu - 8°33′6″S 172°30′3″W  /  8.55167°S 172.50083°W  / -8.55167; -172.50083  (Atafu )
    Nukunonu - 9°10′6″S 171°48′35″W  /  9.16833°S 171.80972°W  / -9.16833; -171.80972  (Nukunonu )
    Fakaofo - 9°21′55″S 171°12′54″W  /  9.36528°S 171.215°W  / -9.36528; -171.215  (Fakaofo )
    History
    Archaeological evidence indicates that the atolls of Tokelau — Atafu, Nukunonu, and Fakaofo — were settled about 1,000 years ago, probably by voyages from Samoa, the Cook Islands and Tuvalu. Oral history traces local traditions and genealogies back several hundred years. 5 - Inhabitants followed Polynesian mythology with the local god Tui Tokelau; and developed forms of music (see Music of Tokelau) and art. The three atolls functioned largely independently while maintaining social and linguistic cohesion. Tokelauan society was governed by chiefly clans, and there were occasional inter-atoll skirmishes and wars as well as inter- marriage. Fakaofo, the "chiefly island," 6 - held some dominance over Atafu and Nukunonu. Life on the atolls was subsistence-based, with reliance on fish and coconut. 5 -
    Western discovery and contact
    Commodore John Byron discovered Atafu on 24 June 1765 and named it "Duke of York's Island." Parties onshore reported that there were no signs of current or previous inhabitants. 7 - 8 - Captain Edward Edwards, in knowledge of Byron's discovery, visited Atafu on 6 June 1791 ] in search of the Bounty mutineers. There were no permanent inhabitants, but houses contained canoes and fishing gear, suggesting the island was used as a temporary residence by fishing parties. 8 - On 12 June 1791, Edwards sailed southward and discovered Nukunonu, naming it "Duke of Clarence's Island". 9 - A landing party could not make contact with the people but saw " morai s," burying places, and canoes with "stages in their middle" sailing across the lagoons. 8 -

    On 29 October 1825 August R. Strong of the U.S.N Dolphin wrote of his crew's arrival at the atoll Nukunonu, "Upon examination, we found they had removed all the women and children from the settlement, which was quite small, and put them in canoes lying off a rock in the lagoon. They would frequently come near the shore, but when we approached they would pull off with great noise and precipitation." (The Journal of the South Pacific, 110 (3), pp. 296).

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    Fakaofo islanders, drawn in 1841 by the United States Exploring Expedition.
    On 14 February 1835 Captain Smith of the United States whaler General Jackson records discovering Fakaofo, calling it "D'Wolf's Island". 10 - 11 - On 25 January 1841, the United States Exploring Expedition visited Atafu and discovered a small population living on the island. The residents appeared to be temporary, evidenced by the lack of a chief and the possession of double canoes (used for inter-island travel). They desired to barter, and possessed blue beads and a plane-iron, indicating previous interaction with foreigners. The expedition reached Nukunonu on 28 January 1841 but did not record any information about inhabitants. On 29 January 1841, the expedition discovered Fakaofo and named it "Bowditch". 12 - The islanders were found to be similar in appearance and nature to those in Atafu. 13 -

    Missionaries preached Christianity in Tokelau from 1845 to the 1860s. FrenchCatholic missionaries on Wallis Island (also known as 'Uvea) and missionaries of the ProtestantLondon Missionary Society in Samoa used native teachers to convert the Tokelauans. Atafu was converted to Protestantism by the London Missionary Society, Nukunonu was converted to Catholicism and Fakaofo was converted to both denominations. 14 -

    Peruvianslave traders arrived in 1863 and took nearly all (253) of the able-bodied men to work as labourers. The men died of dysentery and smallpox, and very few returned to Tokelau. With this loss, the system of governance became based on the "Taupulega", or "Councils of Elders", where individual families on each atoll were represented. 5 - 11 - During this time, Polynesian immigrants and American, Scottish, French, Portuguese and German beachcombers settled, marrying local women and repopulating the atolls. 11 -

    Government
    In 1877 the islands were included under the protection of Great Britain by an Order-in-council which claimed jurisdiction over all unclaimed Pacific Islands. Commander C. F. Oldham on HMS Egeria landed at each of the three atolls in June 1889 15 - and officially raised the Union Flag, declaring the group a Britishprotectorate. The British government annexed Tokelau to the colony of the Gilbert and Ellice Islands and transferred Tokelau to New Zealand administration in 1926, abolishing the islands' chiefdoms. By the Tokelau Act of 1948, sovereignty over Tokelau was transferred to New Zealand. Defence is also the responsibility of New Zealand. However, the Tokelauans are drafting a constitution and developing institutions and patterns of self-government as Tokelau moves towards free association with New Zealand, similarly to Niue and the Cook Islands.

    Villages are entitled to enact their own laws regulating their daily lives and New Zealand law only applies where it has been extended by specific enactment. Serious crime is rare and there are no prisons - offenders are publicly rebuked, fined or made to work 16 -

    Politics
    Politics of Tokelau
    The head of state is Elizabeth II, the Queen in right of New Zealand, who also reigns over the United Kingdom and the other Commonwealth realms. The Queen is represented in the territory by Administrator David Payton. The current head of government is Kuresa Nasau, who presides over the Council for the Ongoing Governance of Tokelau, which functions as a cabinet. The Council consists of the Faipule (leader) and Pulenuku (village mayor) of each of the three atolls. 17 - The monarch is hereditary, the administrator appointed by the Minister of Foreign Affairs and Trade in New Zealand, and the office of head of government rotates between the three Faipule for a one-year term. 17 -

    The Tokelau Amendment Act of 1996 confers legislative power on the General Fono, a unicameral body. The number of seats each atoll receives in the Fono is determined by population — at present, Fakaofo and Atafu both have seven and Nukunonu has six. 17 - Faipule and Pukenuku (atoll leaders and village mayors) also sit in the Fono. 17 -

    On 11 November 2004 Tokelau and New Zealand took steps to formulate a treaty that would turn Tokelau from a non-self-governing territory to a self-governing state in free association with New Zealand. Besides the treaty, a UN-sponsored referendum on self-determination took place, with the three islands voting on successive days starting 13 February 2006. (Tokelauans based in Apia, Samoa, voted on February 11.) 18 - . Out of 581 votes cast, 349 were for Free Association, being short of the two-thirds majority required for the measure to pass. 19 - The referendum was profiled (somewhat light-heartedly) in the 1 May 2006 issue of The New Yorker magazine. 20 - A repeat referendum took place on October 20–24, 2007, again narrowly failing to approve self-government. This time the vote was short by just 16 votes or 3%. 21 -

    In May 2008, the United Nations' Secretary General Ban Ki-moon urged colonial powers "to complete the decolonization process in every one of the remaining 16 Non-Self-Governing Territories", including Tokelau. 22 - This led the New Zealand Herald to comment that the United Nations was "apparently frustrated by two failed attempts to get Tokelau to vote for independence". 23 - In April 2008, speaking as leader of the National Party, future New Zealand Prime Minister John Key stated that New Zealand had "imposed two referenda on the people of the Tokelau Islands", and questioned "the accepted wisdom that small states should undergo a de-colonisation process". 24 -

    Economy
    -
    Nukunonu Lagoon in Tokelau.
    According to the Central Intelligence Agency's list of countries by GDP (PPP) Tokelau has the smallest economy of any country in the world. Tokelau has an annual purchasing power of about US$1,000 (€674) per capita. The government is almost entirely dependent on subsidies from New Zealand. It has annual revenues of less than US$500,000 (€336,995) against expenditures of some US$2.8 million (€1.9 million). The deficit is made up by aid from New Zealand.

    Tokelau annually exports around US$100,000 (€67,400) of stamps, copra and woven and carved handicrafts and imports over US$300,000 (€202,197) of foodstuffs, building materials, and fuel to, and from, New Zealand. New Zealand also pays directly for the cost of medical and education services. Local industries include small-scale enterprises for copra production, wood work, plaited craft goods, stamps, coins, and fishing. Agriculture and livestock produces coconuts, copra, breadfruit, papayas, bananas, pigs, poultry and few goats. A large number of Tokelauans live in New Zealand and support their families in Tokelau through remittances.

    Internet domain names

    .tk
    Tokelau has added more than 10% to its GDP through registrations of domain names under its top-level domain, .tk. 25 - Registrations can be either free, in which case the user owns only usage rights and not the domain itself, or paid, which grants full rights. Free domains are pointed to Tokelau name servers and the only services available are HTTP traffic being redirected via HTML frames to a specified address, and the redirection of up to 250 email address to external address (not at a .tk domain). As of January 2009 Free domains have no requirements for third party advertisements but have a minimum traffic limit of 25 unique visitors in any 90 day period. If this limit is not reached, the domain is suspended and the owner has either 10 days to convert the domain to a paid domain or have the domain deregistered.

    In September 2003 Fakaofo became the first part of Tokelau with a high-speed Internet connection. Foundation Tokelau financed the project. Tokelau gives most domain names under its authority away to anyone for free to gain publicity for the territory. This has allowed the nation to gain enhanced telecommunications technologies, such as more computers and Internet access for Tokelauan residents. ]

    Demographics
    -
    The atoll of Fakaofo, southernmost of the Tokelau Islands.
    Tokelau has a population of 1,433 (as of July 2008). This is lower than 2007, showing a declining population. The nationals of Tokelau are called Tokelauans, and the major ethnic group is Polynesian. The country has no minorities. The major religion is the Congregational Christian Church and the main language is Tokelauan, but English is also spoken.

    Tokelau has fewer than 1,500 Polynesian inhabitants in three villages who speak Tokelauan and English. Their isolation and lack of resources greatly limits economic development and confines agriculture to the subsistence level. The very limited natural resources and overcrowding are contributing to emigration to New Zealand and Samoa, resulting in a population decline of about 0.9% per year. Depletion of tuna has made fishing for food more difficult.

    On the island of Atafu almost all inhabitants are members of the Congregational Christian Church of Samoa. On Nukunonu almost all are Roman Catholic. On Fakaofo both denominations are present with the Congregational Christian Church predominant. The total proportions are: Congregational Christian Church 62%, Roman Catholic 34%, other 5%. 26 -

    While slightly more females than males live on Atafu and Fakaofo, males make up 57% of Nukunonu residents. 27 - Only 9% of Tokelauans aged 40 or more have never been married. 28 - One quarter of the population were born overseas; almost all the rest live on the same atoll they were born on. 29 - Most households own 5 or more pigs. 30 -

    Despite its low income, Tokelau has a life expectancy of 69 years, comparable with parts of Europe 31 -

    Sport
    Rugby union in Tokelau and Rugby league in Tokelau
    Healthcare and education
    Healthcare in Tokelau
    Each atoll has a school and hospital. The health services have a Director of Health based in Apia and a Chief Clinical Advisor who moves from atoll to atoll as required to assist the doctors attached to each hospital. In 2007 there was not always a doctor on each island and locums were appointed to fill the gaps. Upcoming Tokelaun medical graduates should alleviate this shortage in the coming years.

    Many Tokelauan youth travel to New Zealand to further their education and the ship is full around Christmas time with students returning home and then heading off for another year of study.

    Communications
    Tokelau has a radio telephone service between the islands and to Samoa. In 1997, a government-regulated telephone service (TeleTok) with three satellite earth stations was established. Each atoll has a radio-broadcast station that broadcasts shipping and weather reports and every household has a radio or access to one.
    -
    A barge leaves the landing ramp in Nukuono to collect cargo and passengers from the MV Tokelau
    Tokelau is served by the MV Tokelau , owned by the country, with the trip from Apia taking a little over a day. Ships load and unload cargo by motoring up to the down-wind (leeward) side of the islet where the people live and maintaining station, by intermittent use of engines, close to the reef edge so that a landing barge can be motored out to transfer cargo to or from the shore. On returning to shore, the barge negotiates a narrow channel through the reef to the beach. Usually this landing is subject to ocean swell and beaching requires considerable skill and, often, coral abrasions to bodies.

    When bad weather prevents the barge making the trip, the ship stands off to wait suitable weather or goes off to one of the other atolls to attempt to load or unload its passengers or cargo, or both.

    Cyclone Percy
    Cyclone Percy struck and severely damaged Tokelau in late February and early March 2005. Forecasters underestimated the cyclone's strength and the length of time it would be in vicinity to Tokelau. It coincided with a spring tide which put most of the area of the two villages on Fakaofo and Nukunonu under a metre of seawater. The cyclone also caused major erosion on several islets of all three atolls, damaging roads and bridges and disrupting electric power and telecommunications systems. The cyclone did significant and widespread damage to food crops including bananas, coconuts and pandanus. It did not seriously injure anyone but villagers lost significant amounts of property. The geographic future of Tokelau depends on the height of the ocean. No significant land is more than two metres above high water of ordinary tides. This means Tokelau is particularly vulnerable to any possible sea level rises caused by global warming.
    Books and publications
    Tokelau: a historical ethnography by Judith Huntsman & Antony Hooper (1996, Auckland University Press) ISBN 1869401530
    The Future of Tokelau: decolonising agendas by Judith Huntsman with Kelihiano Kalolo (2007, Auckland University Press) ISBN 9781869403980
    Tokelau: People, atolls, and history by Peter McQuarrie (2007, Peter McQuarrie Press) ISBN 9781877449413
    See also
    Outline of Tokelau
    Music of Tokelau
    References
    tokelau-info.tk/
  • "Official site for the Tokelau Council of Ongoing Government" . tokelau.org.nz/
  • "Current local time in Fakaofo, Tokelau". WorldTimeZone.com . worldtimezone.com/time/wtzresult.php?CiID=42135
  • "World Time Zones map" (pdf). Victoria University of Wellington website . vuw.ac.nz/~caplabtb/m302w07/time_zones.pdf
  • "Fakaofo" . fakaofo.tk/page001.html
    John Byron, John Samuel Wallis, Philip Carteret, James Cook, Joseph Banks (1773). An Account of the Voyages Undertaken by the Order of His Present Majesty for making discoveries in the southern hemisphere and successfully performed by Commodore Byron, Captain Carteret, Captain Wallis and Captain Cook in the Dolphin, the Swallow, and the Endeavour. pp. 132, 133 . books.google.com/books?id=8lgBAAAAYAAJ
  • ^ a b c MacGregor, 30
  • Sharp, Andrew (1960). The Discovery of the Pacific Islands. pp. 164 . books.google.com/books?id=HJYhAAAAMAAJ&q=%2212+June%22&pgis=1
    Polynesian Society (N. Z.) (1961). The Journal of the Polynesian Society. pp. 102 . books.google.com/books?id=oWQLAAAAIAAJ&q=%22Smith+placed+Fakaofo+correctly%22
    Nathaniel Bowditch (1773–1838) was an American mathematician remembered for his work on ocean navigation.
    Charles Wilkes (1849). Voyage Round the World. pp. 538 . books.google.com/books?id=NyQcAAAAMAAJ&pg=PA538
    People
  • Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland (1965). The Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland. pp. 43 . books.google.com/books?id=agAaAAAAMAAJ&q=%22June,%201889,%20and%20on%22&dq=oldham+june+1889+egeria&as_brr=0&pgis=1
  • ^ a b c d "How Tokelau is Governed". Tokelauan Council of Ongoing Governance . tokelau.org.nz/Tokelau+Government/Government/HOW+TOKELAU+IS+GOVERNED.html
  • "Fono decisions" . tokelau.org.nz/english/gfdecisions/gfnov05.html
    Parker, Ian (1 May 2006). "Letter from Polynesia: Birth of a nation?". The New Yorker . newyorker.com/archive/2006/05/01/060501fa_fact_parker
    "Tokelau stays as NZ's last colony". Television New Zealand . tvnz.co.nz/view/page/1318360/1415741
    "Tokelau decolonisation high on agenda", New Zealand Herald , May 17, 2008
    John Key's speech to the NZ Institute of International Affairs, April 8, 2008
    "Net gains for tiny Pacific nation". 2007-09-14 . news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/technology/6991719.stm
    "2006 Tokelau Census of Population and Dwellings" (PDF). 20 December 2006. pp. Table 2.5 . spc.int/prism/NSO-News/TK/2006%20Census%20Tabular%20Report%20-%20Final.pdf
    Tokelau Census of Population and Dwellings, Table 1.5.
    Tokelau Census of Population and Dwellings, Table 3.2.
    Tokelau Census of Population and Dwellings, Table 6.13.
    Regions and territories: Tokelau, BBC News
    Find more about Tokelau on Wikipedia's sister projects:
    - - Definitions from Wiktionary
    - - Textbooks from Wikibooks
    - - Quotations from Wikiquote
    - - Source texts from Wikisource
    - - Images and media from Commons
    - - News stories from Wikinews
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    Tokelau entry at The World Factbook
    Tokelau from UCB Libraries GovPubs
    Tokelau at the Open Directory Project
    Wikimedia Atlas of Tokelau
    Tokelau travel guide from Wikitravel
    Ethnology of Tokelau Islands
    Governance
    Tokelau Council of Ongoing Government, executive branch of the government
    The Administrator of Tokelau, Tokelau website of the NZ Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade
    Atolls
    Fakaofo
    Nukunonu
    Coordinates: 09°10′S 171°50′W  /  9.167°S 171.833°W  / -9.167; -171.833

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    Transcontinental country.
    v
    British Empire and Commonwealth of Nations
    Legend
    Current territory
    Former territory
    * now a Commonwealth Realm
    now a member of the Commonwealth of Nations
    Europe
    18th century
    1708–1757 Minorca
    since 1713 Gibraltar
    1763–1782 Minorca
    1798–1802 Minorca

    19th century
    1800–1964 Malta
    1801-1921 Ireland
    1807–1890 Heligoland
    1809–1864 Ionian Islands

    20th century
    1921-1937 Irish Free State

    North America
    17th century
    1607–1776 Virginia
    1610–1907 Newfoundland
    since 1619 Bermuda
    1620–1691 Plymouth Colony
    1629–1691 Massachusetts Bay Colony
    1632–1776 Maryland
    1636–1776 Connecticut
    1636–1776 Rhode Island
    1637–1662 New Haven Colony
    1663–1712 Carolina
    1664–1776 New York
    1665–1674 and 1702-1776 New Jersey
    1670–1870 Rupert's Land
    1674–1702 East Jersey
    1674–1702 West Jersey
    1680–1776 New Hampshire
    1681–1776 Pennsylvania
    1686–1689 Dominion of New England
    1691–1776 Massachusetts

    18th century
    1701–1776 Delaware
    1712–1776 North Carolina
    1712–1776 South Carolina
    1713–1867 Nova Scotia
    1733–1776 Georgia
    1763–1873 Prince Edward Island
    1763–1791 Quebec
    1763–1783 East Florida
    1763–1783 West Florida
    1784–1867 New Brunswick
    1791–1841 Lower Canada
    1791–1841 Upper Canada

    19th century
    1818–1846 Columbia District / Oregon Country
    1841–1867 Province of Canada
    1849–1866 Vancouver Island
    1853–1863 Colony of the Queen Charlotte Islands
    1858–1866 British Columbia
    1859–1870 North-Western Territory
    1862–1863 Stikine Territory
    1866–1871 Vancouver Island and British Columbia
    1867–1931 * Dominion of Canada 2

    20th century
    1907–1949 Dominion of Newfoundland 3

    Occupied jointly with the United States
    2In 1931, Canada and other British dominions obtained self-government through the Statute of Westminster. see Canada's name.
    3Gave up self-rule in 1934, but remained a de jure Dominion until it joined Canada in 1949.

    Latin America and the Caribbean
    17th century
    1605–1979 * Saint Lucia
    1623–1883 Saint Kitts (*Saint Kitts & Nevis)
    1624–1966 * Barbados
    1625–1650 Saint Croix
    1627–1979 * St. Vincent and the Grenadines
    1628–1883 Nevis (*Saint Kitts & Nevis)
    1629–1641 St. Andrew and Providence Islands 4
    since 1632 Montserrat
    1632–1860 Antigua (*Antigua & Barbuda)
    1643–1860 Bay Islands
    since 1650 Anguilla
    1651–1667 Willoughbyland (Suriname)
    1655–1850 Mosquito Coast (protectorate)
    1655–1962 * Jamaica
    since 1666 British Virgin Islands
    since 1670 Cayman Islands
    1670–1973 * Bahamas
    1670–1688 St. Andrew and Providence Islands 4
    1671–1816 Leeward Islands

    18th century
    1762–1974 * Grenada
    1763–1978 Dominica
    since 1799 Turks and Caicos Islands

    19th century
    1831–1966 British Guiana (Guyana)
    1833–1960 Windward Islands
    1833–1960 Leeward Islands
    1860–1981 * Antigua and Barbuda
    1871–1964 British Honduras (*Belize)
    1882–1983 * St. Kitts and Nevis
    1889–1962 Trinidad and Tobago

    20th century
    1958–1962 West Indies Federation

    4Now the San Andrés y Providencia Department of Colombia

    Africa
    18th century
    1792–1961 Sierra Leone
    1795–1803 Cape Colony

    19th century
    1806–1910 Cape Colony
    1816–1965 Gambia
    1856–1910 Natal
    1868–1966 Basutoland (Lesotho)
    1874–1957 Gold Coast (Ghana)
    1882–1922 Egypt
    1884–1966 Bechuanaland (Botswana)
    1884–1960 British Somaliland
    1887–1897 Zululand
    1888–1894 Matabeleland
    1890–1980 Southern Rhodesia (Zimbabwe)
    1890–1962 Uganda
    1890–1963 Zanzibar (Tanzania)
    1891–1964 Nyasaland (Malawi)
    1891–1907 British Central Africa Protectorate
    1893–1968 Swaziland
    1895–1920 East Africa Protectorate
    1899–1956 Anglo-Egyptian Sudan

    20th century
    1900–1914 Northern Nigeria
    1900–1914 Southern Nigeria
    1900–1910 Orange River Colony
    1900–1910 Transvaal Colony
    1906–1954 Nigeria Colony
    1910–1931 South Africa
    1911–1964 Northern Rhodesia (Zambia)
    1914–1954 Nigeria Colony and Protectorate
    1915–1931 South West Africa (Namibia)
    1919–1960 Cameroons (Cameroon) 5
    1920–1963 Kenya
    1922–1961 Tanganyika (Tanzania) 5
    1954–1960 Nigeria

    5League of Nations mandate

    Asia
    17th Century
    1685-1824 Bencoolen
    (Sumatra)

    18th century
    1702–1705 Con Dao
    1757–1947 Bengal ( West Bengal (India) and Bangladesh )
    1762–1764 Philippines
    1795–1948 Ceylon (Sri Lanka)
    1796–1965 Maldives

    19th century
    1819–1826 British Malaya ( Peninsular Malaysia and Singapore )
    1826–1946 Straits Settlements
    1839–1967 Colony of Aden
    1841–1997 Hong Kong
    1841–1941 Kingdom of Sarawak (Malaysia)
    1858–1947 British India ( India , Pakistan and Bangladesh , Burma)
    1882–1963 British North Borneo (Malaysia)
    1885–1946 Unfederated Malay States
    1888–1984 Sultanate of Brunei
    1888–1946 Sultanate of Sulu
    1891–1971 Muscat and Oman protectorate
    1892–1971 Trucial States protectorate
    1895–1946 Federated Malay States
    1898–1930 Weihai Garrison
    1878–1960 Cyprus

    20th century
    1918–1961 Kuwait protectorate
    1920–1932 Iraq 5
    1921–1946 Transjordan 5
    1923–1948 Palestine 5
    1946–1948 Malayan Union
    1946–1963 Sarawak (Malaysia)
    1948–1957 Federation of Malaya (Malaysia)
    since 1960 Akrotiri and Dhekelia (before as part of Cyprus)
    since 1965 British Indian Ocean Territory

    5League of Nations mandate

    Oceania
    18th century
    1788–1901 New South Wales

    19th century
    1803–1901 Van Diemen's Land/Tasmania
    1807–1863 Auckland Islands 6
    1824–1980 New Hebrides (Vanuatu)
    1824–1901 Queensland
    1829–1901 Swan River Colony/Western Australia
    1836–1901 South Australia
    since 1838 Pitcairn Islands
    1841–1907 Colony of New Zealand
    1851–1901 Victoria
    1874–1970 Fiji 7
    1877–1976 British Western Pacific Territories
    1884–1949 Territory of Papua
    1888–1965 Cook Islands 6
    1889–1948 Union Islands (Tokelau) 6
    1892–1979 Gilbert and Ellice Islands 8
    1893–1978 British Solomon Islands 9

    20th century
    1900–1970 Tonga (protected state)
    1900–1974 Niue 6
    1901–1942 * Commonwealth of Australia
    1907–1953 * Dominion of New Zealand
    1919–1942 Nauru
    1945–1968 Nauru
    1919–1949 Territory of New Guinea
    1949–1975 Territory of Papua and New Guinea 10

    6Now part of the * Realm of New Zealand
    7Suspended member
    8Now Kiribati and * Tuvalu
    9Now the * Solomon Islands
    10Now * Papua New Guinea

    Antarctica and South Atlantic
    17th century
    since 1659 St. Helena

    19th century
    since 1815 Ascension Island 11
    since 1816 Tristan da Cunha 11
    since 1833 Falkland Islands 12

    20th century
    since 1908 British Antarctic Territory 13
    since 1908 South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands 12, 13

    11Dependencies of St. Helena since 1922 (Ascension Island) and 1938 (Tristan da Cunha)
    12Occupied by Argentina during the Falklands War of April–June 1982
    13Both claimed in 1908; territories formed in 1962 (British Antarctic Territory) and 1985 (South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands)

    v
    d
    e
    Austronesian-speakingcountries and territories
    Formosan
    Taiwan
    Malayo-Polynesian
    American Samoa
    Brunei
    Burma (Myanmar)
    Cambodia
    Christmas Island
    Cocos (Keeling) Islands
    Cook Islands
    Easter Island
    East Timor
    Fiji
    French Polynesia
    Guam
    Hainan
    Indonesia
    Kiribati
    Madagascar
    Malaysia
    Marshall Islands
    FS Micronesia
    Nauru
    New Caledonia
    New Zealand
    Niue
    Northern Mariana Islands
    Orchid Island
    Palau
    Papua New Guinea
    Philippines
    Samoa
    Singapore
    Solomon Islands
    Sri Lanka
    Suriname
    Tokelau
    Tonga
    Tuvalu
    United States (Hawaii
    Vanuatu
    Vietnam
    Wallis and Futuna
    References from: Tokelau from Wikipedia the free encyclopedia
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